1. Problem definition
Recognizing problems can be tricky simply because they are rarely defined in a case. You can’t begin a causal explanation until you know the problem that needs to be explained. A problem definition organizes, concentrates, and describes the critical effects that the main character in the case should be most concerned about.
A problem requires a diagnosis based on cause-and-effect analysis.
2. Diagnosis
To diagnose a problem-based case, it is useful to answer these specific questions
– Who or what is the subject of the problem (a manager, a company, a country)?
– What is the problem? Am I trying to account for a failure, a success, or something more ambiguous?
– What’s the significance of the problem ro the subject?
– Who is responsible for the problem and what might he need to know to do something about it?
A diagnosis s a summary statement of the important causes.