?Burn wound healing is a serious challenge in the present world. Pathophysiology of impaired burn wound healing is still unclear. It is presumed that delayed burn wound healing is due to the persistence of prolonged inflammation, and an inadequate angiogenic response. In case of injured vascularized skin tissues demand biomaterials in tissue replacement, to improve healing processes had been increased significantly these days. Moreover growth factor carrier systems.

Few burn dressings can self-regulate the optimal humidity levels that are required for wound healing, while also providing good anti-adhesive properties to prevent damage that can occur when wound dressings are changed. In our present study Here, we designed a mussel-inspired, PVA-Agar hydrogel with superior self-healing ability, excellent cell affinity, and tissue adhesiveness. These icariin loaded hydrogels mimic the intrinsic properties of the natural counterpart, especially its excellent cell affinity, tissue adhesiveness, and self-healing ability, in order to withstand cyclic loading and repair skin and muscle damage on integration with surrounding tissue after implantation.

Most previously reported PVA-based hydrogels were formed through chemical cross-linking, but the carcinogenicity might be a concern for biomedical applications. Moreover, agar has high adhesiveness to various surfaces and excellent cell affinity.

PVA is used as semi-synthetic PAA and the adhesive polymer that has been extensively used for the preparation of hydrogels, as it poses numerous desirable properties like good swelling, biocompatibility, low toxicity, and structural similarities with ECM. PVA has been used as a base material with other polymers as thickening, dispersing, suspending and emulsifying agents, scaffolds, hydrogels, and films for several biomedical applications in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.Agar is a polysaccharide derived from red algae which is present in cell walls of some algae. Agar advantageous for wound healing like biocompatibility, biodegradability, hemostatic activity, healing acceleration, and adsorption properties. is its presence of glucoside linkages and molecular weight which influence its physicochemical behavior. Agar extracted from ogonori (Gracilaria) purer than agar from tengusa (Gelidiaceae); this purity makes it and cosmetic application.
Icariin is a chemical compound isolated from Epimedium genus, it is one of the most enduring materials to be used in wound care, attributed to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties Antibacterial activity of icariin is due to its high osmolarity, and pH. The chemical composition of epimedium i.e.; icariin is also responsible for its antioxidant activity which protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals thus decreasing the inflammation process. It was reported that the free radical scavenging activities of epimedium, is mainly due to the contents of flavonoids like icariin.

In the present study, the composite matrix derived from icariin and PVA/Agar hydrogel was introduced as a novel crosslinked icariin hydrogel having reservoir capacities for the sustained delivery of icariin, which were prepared by physical crosslinking technique. The development of a sustained release system would substantially increase the utility of incorporated icariin in tissue repair and effectively interact with the burn wounds and thus facilitate healing.

In this context, Icariin loaded PVA/agar hydrogels are reported to have a great potential in the promotion of tissue regeneration. An icariin loaded PVA/ Agar hydrogel for biomedical engineering mimics the intrinsic properties of natural tissue, especially high toughness and self-healing ability, and thus withstands cyclic loading and repairs skin and muscle damage. The regular topical application of icariin loaded hydrogel containing in the treatment of full-thickness burns accelerates the granulation, reepithelialization process, and wound retraction.
In case of our study, Hydrogels are designed with excellent cell affinity that allows cells and tissues to attach so that they can accelerate tissue regeneration after implantation. In this manuscript, we have reported the preparation of Icariin loaded PVA/Agar hydrogel via physical crosslinking and have evaluated its potential in burn wound healing. These hydrogels have been characterized for structural morphology, porosity, DSC, FTIR, XRD, in vivo burn wound healing and histopathological studies. In short, through this experiment, it is found that in the early phase of the rats burn wound healing, using icariin loaded hydrogels can enhance collagen formation, and achieve the goal of faster wound healing.