Cause and Effect Argument Essay
Cause and Effect Argument Essay
Human organs are one of the valuable assets in the world due to their nature, function and their impact on matters of life and death. Organ transplant is becoming one of the healthcare needs in the United States as the number of patients requiring organ transplant is continually increasing due to the development of chronic illness (Beard, Kaserman, & Osterkamp, 2013). Most of the chronic illnesses affect the body organs requiring organ transplant to address the issue. The number of patients requiring organ transplant has increased leading to a long waiting list of men, women, and children patients on the waiting list (Beard, Kaserman, & Osterkamp, 2013). Due to the high number of patients in need of replacement organs, there has developed an international trade, which involves selling of organs to address the high demand (Beard, Kaserman, & Osterkamp, 2013). This paper is going to research on whether to legalize the organ trade or not and the effects associated with the legalization of the trade.
This trade involves purchasing organs from the poor and other donors, which are then sold to the rich individuals. Hospitals act as brokers for the organs, which make large profits for the hospitals (Flescher, 2018). Other individuals are turning to the black market to obtain the organs. The issue of selling and legalizing the sale of organs has faced a lot of opposition from religious institutions and the society (Flescher, 2018). This is because of the fear that some doctors may actually hasten the lives of patients to be able to obtain the organs of the patients. The wealthy individuals may also take advantage of the poor by paying them for their organs and this issue should be discussed to ascertain whether marketing of human organs should be legal (Flescher, 2018).
Due to the increase in demand for human organs, this has also led to an increase in the illegal sales of organs, which has negatively impacted the current process of obtaining the organs from the donors (Flescher, 2018). This issue has been extensively debated with both supporters on the legalization of the marketing of human organs with others in opposition of the organ trade based on ethical, social, and religious views (Flescher, 2018). This debate is not easy to settle on since both sides have convincing opinions and any decision to favor either side will have consequences on the other group. This is because the decision is based on a matter of life and death and should be taken seriously with considerations on both sides of the debate on the issue (Flescher, 2018).
The group in support of the legalization of the organ trade has arguments, which make it look like a simple decision to provide organs to the patients. However, there are serious factors to be considered in this process. Although there is a high demand for organs, which has led to patients even waiting for years until they can get access to the organs they require, the process of obtaining an organ is a very complex process (Beard, Kaserman, & Osterkamp, 2013). The patient must look for organs, which match the requirements desired and compatible to their bodies, which is an issue, which needs a lot of attention. Legalizing the sale of organs would not help in addressing this issue rather lead to more problems in the process. Legalizing the sale of organs will also have an impact on the society as the society has moral and ethical principles, which might be against this action (Beard, Kaserman, & Osterkamp, 2013).
The society might be divided on this issue depending on one’s moral principles, which are different between different communities. Some of the ethical arguments may include the issue of putting a price value on one’s body organs, which there are no standard measures to determine this effectively (Fry-Revere, 2014). Other views include the access to the body organs by the wealthy, which leaves the poor at a compromising position. If the process is made legal, there should be procedures to allow everyone to access the organs regardless of their financial position in the society (Fry-Revere, 2014). Due to the high value placed on the body organs, the poor cannot be able to afford the organs and this can lead to the individuals selling their other organs if affected by chronic illnesses (Fry-Revere, 2014).
Normal individuals who are poor can also donate their organs to the rich, which can seem as discrimination and the rich taking advantage of the poor. Since the rich are the only one able to access the organs, the competition would lead to a high value on the human organs (Fry-Revere, 2014). This would make the middle class and the poor population unable to access the organs creating an imbalance in the patients who receive an organ transplant and those who do not (Fry-Revere, 2014). This would indicate that the wealthy individuals have a right and more value for their lives more than the poor population. Most of the healthcare efforts are aimed at ensuring that everyone has the right to access quality healthcare regardless other factors which may pose a challenge for some communities to access quality healthcare services (Fry-Revere, 2014).
The Affordable Care Act is aimed at ensuring that everyone has access to healthcare insurance, which will help all citizens to access healthcare services just like other individuals with a high social status (Ackley, 2018). Focusing on the wealthy individuals is an action, which goes against this principle. Poor people would die due to their inability to access the organs due to their low financial status (Ackley, 2018). This would also discourage individuals donating the organs who might as well consider selling them instead of donating them creating more problems in addressing this issue. Freely selling the human organs in a market would also result in an auction process where the individuals bid for organs increasing the value of accessing the organs for the middle class and the poor (Ackley, 2018).
This might lead to the brokers taking advantage of the patients as they can increase the price of an organ through bidding, as there are no rules to govern the sale of human organs (Ackley, 2018). This can lead to the brokers exploiting the patients without the consideration of the immediate need of the patients. Some poor individuals may also proceed to sell their organs without considering the risks involved in the process of organ transplant, which may pose a health risk to the individuals (Ackley, 2018). An example can be in selling a kidney where an individual can offer to sell one of their kidneys since a person can still function with one. After individuals get a market for their kidney, which includes a high price for their organ, they can proceed to have a surgery to remove the kidney (Ackley, 2018).
This action is driven by greed for money and not on the mentality of helping a patient. The donors also face a health risk in the process of removing their organs, which can be indicated in the process involved in donating a kidney (Caplan, McCartney, & Reid, 2015). The group in support of this idea can argue that the organs belong to the individuals and they have the right of doing whatever they deem fit for their organs (Caplan, McCartney, & Reid, 2015). Although this is true, the process of organ transplant is more complex and not like trading a material thing as it involves a complex health process and documentation to give consent due to the health risks involved in the process. Donors loose something of value compared to selling a material thing and this may affect their body functioning which is a matter of life and death (Caplan, McCartney, & Reid, 2015).
This is also different from donating blood, which the body can replenish, and one is back to normal levels (Auth & Kerstein, 2013). However, if the process of blood donation involved financial gains to the donors, the number of donors would decrease with others opting to trade their blood for financial gains (Auth & Kerstein, 2013). Since organ donation is important and helps patients who would otherwise lose their lives if they did not have access to the organs, there should be adequate and considerable rules and regulations to govern the organ trade. Due to the current organ shortage across the world, legalizing the sale of organs will not address this problem and will even cause more shortages and other problems in this process (Auth & Kerstein, 2013).
Some of the strategies may include the provision of incentives to donors to address the thoughts of donating their organs for financial gains. Donors should also be encouraged to continue donating their organs to the needy but if the organ trade is legalized, some of the donors who are out to help the needy might be discouraged in providing their organs to the patients (Auth & Kerstein, 2013). Selling body organs freely just like other commodities is not the solution to address the issues surrounding the organ trade and may even lead to more problems negatively affecting the process and further affecting the needy poor patients requiring organ transplant.
The process of deciding whether to legalize the process or not is not easy to determine rather there must be compromise on both sides of the debate and other stakeholders should also be involved to provide more insights on the process. The government can participate in this process by providing a clear and open process to prevent brokers of taking advantage on unsuspecting patients (Auth & Kerstein, 2013). If the voluntary donors are discouraged from donating their organs to needy patients, obtaining an organ will only be favorable to the rich and wealthy with the poor suffering more (Caplan, McCartney, & Reid, 2015). Due to the high demand for organs and the long waiting lists for organs, stakeholders involved should develop a good intervention besides legalizing the sale of organs as more lives are at stake (Caplan, McCartney, & Reid, 2015).
Ackley, K. A. (2018). Perspectives on contemporary issues: Readings across the disciplines. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Auth, P. C., & Kerstein, M. D. (2013). Physician assistant review. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Beard, T. R., Kaserman, D. L., & Osterkamp, R. (2013). The global organ shortage: Economic causes, human consequences, policy responses. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Economics and Finance, an imprint of Stanford University Press.
Caplan, A. L., McCartney, J. J., & Reid, D. P. (2015). Replacement parts: The ethics of procuring and replacing organs in humans. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Flescher, A. M. (2018). The organ shortage crisis in America: Incentives, civic duty, and closing the gap. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Fry-Revere, S. (2014). The kidney sellers: A journey of discovery in Iran. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.