METHODS OF RESEARCH
This chapter presents information on the research methodology that were used in the study. Specifically, it includes the research methodology and techniques, population sample, research instruments, data gathering and procedure, and the data processing and statistical treatment of the study.
Methods and Techniques of the Study
This research design of a study outlines the basic approach the researchers used to answer the research question (Polit & Beck, 2010). To meet the aims and objectives of the study it is important that the researcher selects the most appropriate design for achieving the aims of the study (Parahoo, 2006).
In order to satisfy the objectives of the study a quantitative research was held by the researchers. The researchers made use of the descriptive method of research through survey questionnaires to gather information about and in assessing the perceptions of commuters and Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) drivers towards the PUV Modernization Program (PUVMP). The method descriptive research is derived from a broad class of non-experimental studies with the purpose of describing characteristics of a phenomenon. It is the most appropriate method to be used since a self-constructed questionnaire was utilized to obtain the data needed to answer the questions in this study. The survey questionnaires were answered by 100 individuals consisting of 50 jeepney drivers from the Malolos Transport Terminal in Barangay Guinhawa, City of Malolos Bulacan, along with 50 random commuters (25 girls and 25 boys) from Barangay Atlag, City of Malolos, Bulacan.
The researchers provided written questionnaires to the respondents. The questions gives a clearer data to analyze the perceptions of commuters towards the traditional and the modernized Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) units, and the PUV Modernization Program (PUVMP) per se. The quantitative approach arises from the belief that human phenomenon and variables in human behavior can be studied objectively (Parahoo, 2006), for this reason, the researchers opted to utilize this approach as something appropriate for the study being conducted.
Population Sample of the Study
The researchers chose the Barangay Atlag, Malolos, Bulacan and Barangay Guinhawa, City of Malolos, Bulacan as the principal sites of the study. The study involved a total number of 103 respondents consisting of 50 jeepney drivers located at the Malolos Transport Terminal in Barangay Guinhawa, City of Malolos, Bulacan, as well as 50 random commuters (25 girls and 25 boys) to take part in the study being conducted. A sample of the commuters were drawn in Barangay Atlag, Malolos, Bulacan. The data gathering for the study was conducted for roughly 2 months. Over half of the respondents were composed of commuters who regularly travels between work or school and home.
The respondents were chosen through the use of random sampling method. Along with this, the researchers also conducted an interview with 3 jeepney operators/drivers from the City of Malolos, Bulacan using the purposive sampling method. The 50 commuters, 50 PUJ drivers and 3 PUJ operators/drivers collectively constitutes the respondents of the study, making a total of 103 respondents.
The respondents answered few questions that can help the researchers assess the implications of the PUV Modernization Program to the commuters and jeepney drivers. The method of convenient random sampling was used in this study so that the researchers could make use of all the data efficiently. Purposive sampling was also utilized for the interview. The respondents were selected based on the judgment of who has best qualifications in answering the specific questions of the research.
Green, Camilli, & Elmore (2006), echoing Yin (2009), stated that a carefully conducted study benefits from having multiple sources of evidence, which ensure that the study is as robust as possible. The concept of methods refers in general to the appropriate use of techniques of data collection and analysis (Prasad, 2005).
The data used for the research activity were attained through the use of self-made interview questionnaires as well as close and open-ended survey questionnaires distributed personally by the researchers to the respondents.
The questionnaires played a major instrument in the study, helping the researchers to be able to secure despondence to certain questions. The questionnaires that were used in the study was designed to obtain information on the perceptions of commuters and PUJ drivers towards the PUV Modernization Program.
Close-ended questions were used to give the respondents the opportunity to give their responses by providing them choices that best reflects to their response. Also the researchers gave the option of being anonymous so that the respondents may answer as honestly as possible making the survey most effective.
The survey questionnaire used was composed of three (2) parts. The first part constitutes the respondent’s profile. The second part of the questionnaire included close-ended questions using the Five Point Likert’s Scale, questions about their perception or outlook towards the current public transportation, and the Modernized Public Utility Jeepneys under the PUV Modernization Program were asked.
The questionnaire prepared by the researchers was develop by reading reference materials and journals, related literature and studies about the proposed PUV Modernization program.
Data Gathering and Procedure
The data gathering for this research was to be collected using survey interview that are personally handed by the researchers to the respondents. The researchers created a questionnaire with queries that are significantly related to the topic at hand. The handling of questionnaires as well as the retrieval was facilitated personally by the researchers as well. This procedure enabled the researchers to conduct interview at the same time consecutively.
A correlation analysis was implored in order to determine if there is a significant relationship between the respondent’s profile, and their perceptions on the traditional as well as the modernized Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) models.
At the same time, a comparative analysis was also be done by the researchers to know what the difference and similarities of the two varying respondents, the jeepney drivers and the commuters, regarding the PUV Modernization Program.
Data Processing and Statistical Treatment
The data achieved from the survey was organized and analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program. The researchers used descriptive statistics to extract the percentage as well as to compute for the mean in the questions that were asked by the Five Point Likert’s Scale.
An interview was also conducted between conducted between 3 jeepney operators from Pulilan, Bulacan. The interviews will be conducted separately so as to not disturb the work operations of the following individuals. The results of the survey were consolidated by the interview respondents to attest the validity. The opinions and thoughts of the interview respondents about the PUV Modernization Program were also asked during the interview.