Every employee has their own personal factors that underpin their personality and motivate them in the workplace, some of these are driven by external rewards i.e. Salary, Bonus, company car, promotion & praise etc. However other motivational factors can include personal enjoyment, satisfaction, flexibility and achieving results (not necessarily with reward)
Hertzberg’s theory also known as Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory states that there are factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. He was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors and were not opposing reactions to the same factors
In 1959 Herzberg wrote the following which helps explain this theory. “We can expand … by stating that the job satisfiers deal with the factors involved in doing the job, whereas the job dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define the job context.”
Herzberg 6 motivational factors as shown above are Blue:
Herzberg theory explains the factors that motivate individuals through identifying and satisfying their individual needs, desires and the aims pursued to satisfy these.
The two ‘needs’ are the need to avoid unpleasantness and, at the other end of the motivational scale, the need for personal development. A shortage of the factors that positively encourage employees (the motivating factors) will cause employees to focus on other, non-job related ‘hygiene’ factors which will result in demotivation.
The most important part of this theory of motivation is that the main motivating factors are not in the environment but in the intrinsic value and satisfaction gained from the job itself. Therefore, to motivate an individual, a job itself must be challenging, have scope for enrichment and be of interest to the employee. the sense of achievement and have the intrinsic value obtained from the job itself
Achievement: When a target is hit employees need to feel like they have contributed and feel a sense of achievement: certain managerial behaviours will enforce this: praise people, give them responsibility, set clear goals, distribute carefully (who is best at what), who will work with who better), don’t talk down to people: manage inclusively
Recognition: By both colleagues and management : The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers. Employees whether a team or an individual need to be given recognition when things go well, as well as informed when they do not. If a team has several members and each member has a key task within the overall task and that task is achieved, then the whole team has contributed and should be praised as a team. If individuals are singled out for praise this can have a damaging effect of the rest of the team, ideally Individual targets can be set and measured as well as a team target for overall completion of a project. That way everyone feels that they have contributed to the whole
Possibility of Growth: Changes in job or training possibility where professional growth opportunity is available
Advancement: There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organisation to motivate the employees to perform well. An employee or team who see their performance as not being recognised will become demotivated
Responsibility: The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. The managers should give them the opportunity to take ownership of the work. Managers should minimize control where possible but retain accountability.
Work itself: Doing the job itself can be rewarding, the work should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.
Motivators lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and sense of self-achievement.