Factors that Lead to Innovative Student

Factors that Lead to Innovative Student.Nurfarhana RidzuanFaculty of Business Administration,
Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia,
email: [email protected]
Abstract
1.0 Introduction.

Students nowadays used to communicate with people because they are expecting the continuous connection of information. Against the way they live their lives to put away their personal technology during class session because there are a few reason for student expect what they learn at school have connection with the reality worldADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/tl”, “ISBN” : “1536-0768”, “ISSN” : “02710633”, “PMID” : “35859038”, “abstract” : “In his book “Creating Significant Learning Experiences” (2003), Dee Fink challenges professors to create a deep vision for the courses they teach. Educators often have a vision for what their courses could be, but often lack a model for instituting change. Fink’s book provides that model. In this article, the author describes how this model helped him use more active learning experiences that not only deepened students’ understanding of musical forms but also enabled students to creatively play with those forms.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kelley”, “given” : “Bruce C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “New Directions for Teaching and Learning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “119”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “35-41”, “title” : “Inspiration and intellect: Significant learning in musical forms and analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=425ba1e0-e4f0-4fb5-8032-1d34432fb95b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kelley, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kelley, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kelley, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kelley, 2009). Beside that, student can easily access the information by search from Google and a lot of relevant website will recently produces. Students todays grow up with gadgets and everything is on fingertips. That’s how technology conquer student mind and the way they are think. This evolution of the study can lead to the generation of innovative students.

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Live in twenty-century era fully change the ways of working in all area in life. Modern technology hundred percent influenced the changes in education system. This revolution era need a concrete development plan in education, but over time it must have some factor that will defect the plan which is can be a factor that limits of the contemporary role of education management. The educational institution that applied this new environment will be more modern and successful where people in there does not look like having a traditional way of teaching and learning such as only using book as their available sources of knowledge .Innovative happen when the people has a creativity of ideas, can do something that are outside of the box and keep the task to be practice. Creativity and innovation are more important at twenty first century whereby the knowledge society has been developed so wellADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1037/h0032126”, “ISBN” : “9781604562750 (hardcover)”, “ISSN” : “0003-066X”, “PMID” : “7327308”, “abstract” : “Participative methods are commonly used in executive training programs and permit the learning of interpersonal and leadership skills and the development of sensitivity. Such learning cannot be achieved from lectures or reading since they require practice and are seldom used in college teaching, often because participation is seen as limited to small classes. This article describes how full participation can be obtained in large classes and educational costs reduced by utilizing students as trainers. By dividing classes into groups or pairs, situations can be created in which students must (a) converse in a foreign language, (b) resolve a conflict, (c) conduct an interview, or (d) solve a problem together. Individuals can read and listen by themselves but they cannot discuss or experience conflict by themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mishra”, “given” : “R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Innovative Social Science & Humanities Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “43-51”, “title” : “Innovation in education.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dbd8e60d-1049-4398-94f2-c8bdce7eb598” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mishra, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mishra, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mishra, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mishra, 2014). One of factor that people can reveal their creative and innovative skill is by education. It is show because in education have a learning process where it is can help especially student to hit the road by showing what they have.

The nature of online instruction does not allow instructor to perceived important non-verbal cues that signal in order to be understanding. Other than that, successful online student can be describe self-motivated, self-directed, exhibiting an internal locus of control with above average executive functioning, communication, interaction and technological skillsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3402/rlt.v23.26507”, “ISBN” : “2156-7069”, “ISSN” : “21567077”, “abstract” : “Students perceive online courses differently than traditional courses. Negative perceptions can lead to unfavourable learning outcomes including decreased motivation and persistence. Throughout this review, a broad range of factors that affect performance and satisfaction within the online learning environment for adult learners will be examined including learning outcomes, instructional design and learner characteristics, followed by suggestions for further research, and concluding with implications for online learning pertinent to administrators, instructors, course designers and students. Online learning may not be appropriate for every student. Identifying particular characteristics that contribute to online success versus failure may aid in predicting possible learning outcomes and save students from enrolling in online courses if this type of learning environment is not appropriate for them. Furthermore, knowing these learner attributes may assist faculty in designing quality online courses to meet students’ needs. Adequate instructional methods, support, course structure and design can facilitate student performance and satisfaction. Advances in technology, including the internet, have affected the delivery of education across the world. Online learning is growing at an incredible rate. The Sloan Foundation annual report, Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States 2011, reported that over 6.5 million students enrolled in at least one online course during 2010 with 31% of post-secondary students taking at least one online course (Allen and Seaman 2011). While there has been an increase in this method of delivery, it is still relatively new. The present review will examine a broad range of factors that affect performance and satisfaction within the online learning environment for adult learners. Much research has been done examining traditional models of delivery (i.e. classroom); extensive information regarding the online classroom is still emerging. According to Moore and Kearsley (2005), online learning has typically been the chosen method for working adults aged 25u00c150. Online education offers a convenience and flexibility that traditional face-to-face classes cannot, especially important for those learners balancing work, school and family. Almost all courses nowadays have some online component, often using web-based technology to facilitate delivery of course”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kauffman”, “given” : “Heather”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Research in Learning Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “A review of predictive factors of student success in and satisfaction with online learning”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “23” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=10e533e1-97cf-48f4-b349-4741c3c1eecd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kauffman, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kauffman, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kauffman, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kauffman, 2015). When new idea has been generated, created and developed it show that hat how the innovative behavior been described and the process of a student learning. According to research done by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3102/0034654314557949”, “ISBN” : “0034-6543”, “ISSN” : “0034-6543”, “abstract” : “Innovative behavior can be described as a process in which new ideas are generated, created, developed, applied, promoted, realized, and modified by employees to benefit role performance. Various reasons, such as rapid tech-nological and social changes in society, underline the necessity for innova-tive behavior of employees and certainly of teachers. However, little research has been conducted that explores teacher innovative behavior and which factors influence this behavior or what effects can be achieved through such behavior. In this systematic literature review, we develop a preliminary model of factors that enhance innovative behavior in educational organizations. Similar to findings of studies in other human behavior fields, self-efficacy plays an important role as well as a variety of individual and environmental factors. Based on this review, we urge for more systematic research on teacher innovative behavior to enhance the future quality of education.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Thurlings”, “given” : “M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Evers”, “given” : “A. T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vermeulen”, “given” : “M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Review of Educational Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “430-471”, “title” : “Toward a Model of Explaining Teachers’ Innovative Behavior: A Literature Review”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “85” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c0d7d1ad-ce14-49e3-ba4d-1b66854c6ce9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Thurlings, Evers, & Vermeulen, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Thurlings, Evers, and Vermeulen (2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Thurlings, Evers, & Vermeulen, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Thurlings, Evers, & Vermeulen, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Thurlings, Evers, and Vermeulen (2015) state that there are a few reason that lead to the changes of teacher behavior because form teaching it can affect the creation of innovative student. Firstly is keep up to date with a quickly changing especially with the community of people. This is because it will lead to demands in knowledge where in fact will increasing for both students and teacher. The next reason is upcoming new technologies and understanding of deep things about the teaching require. It is important because it will lead to have a creative idea by apply it with the connection of technologies. Third is the school itself need to show a good example and act which is as the starting point for more innovative behavior of people who is lawfully live a country so they can stay competitive. Education is extremely important in order to help student showing their ability in order to create interesting new things and creative ideas.

All technologies are a group of people or devices that are made up of smaller parts of other technologies. That is how the change try to get better and how they are built through combination and recombination. Some of those technologies in assembly will be harder and more pre-decide, some softer and open to change by the end users. Softer technologies are those that combine humans in their design and putting into law, where allowing tools to be used in any waysADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.15215/aupress/9781927356807.01”, “ISBN” : “9781927356814”, “abstract” : “Within the rapidly expanding field of educational technology, learners and educators must confront a seemingly overwhelming selection of tools designed to deliver and facilitate both online and blended learning. Many of these tools assume that learning is configured and delivered in closed contexts, through learning management systems (LMS). However, while traditional “classroom” learning is by no means obsolete, networked learning is in the ascendant. A foundational method in online and blended education, as well as the most common means of informal and self-directed learning, networked learning is rapidly becoming the dominant mode of teaching as well as learning.\r\n\r\nIn Teaching Crowds, Dron and Anderson introduce a new model for understanding and exploiting the pedagogical potential of Web-based technologies, one that rests on connections u2014 on networks and collectives u2014 rather than on separations. Recognizing that online learning both demands and affords new models of teaching and learning, the authors show how learners can engage with social media platforms to create an unbounded field of emergent connections. These connections empower learners, allowing them to draw from one anotheru2019s expertise to formulate and fulfill their own educational goals. In an increasingly networked world, developing such skills will, they argue, better prepare students to become self-directed, lifelong learners.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anderson”, “given” : “Terry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dron”, “given” : “Jon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e810c795-f010-4c1a-a02a-9fa2685ab40b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anderson & Dron, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anderson & Dron, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anderson & Dron, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anderson ; Dron, 2014). Social technologies are basically and mostly soft. Other than that, the application of social technology are unable to be separated from the processes, rules, normal behaviors and ways of doing things that are grouped together with them. The technologies provide opportunities and the users as a people, groups, and networks decide how the best use for selfish reasons.

The students become an independent learner and critical thinker when they carefully study, figure out the worth, amount, or quality of and the combination of information from variety of sources and present their own reasonable understandingADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Background: The recent campaign seeks to shed light on the move to a new delivery system approach in nursing schools, where student centered learning such as problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced to replace the teacher centered learning in an effort to promote nursing students critical thinking ability, enhance their knowledge acquisition and retention, autonomy, and professional identity. Aim: to examine the impact of problem based learning on students’ critical thinking dispositions, knowledge acquisition and retention. Methods: The study was used quasi-experimental design and conducted at the Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University. The total number of the nursing students enrolled in the 3rd year (2011-2012) (n= 385 nursing students) Only 200 students, were agreed to participate in this study, which divided randomly into two groups. 100 students were experimental group and100 students were control group. Data was collected by using three tools: The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTID) questionnaire. It was developed by Facione & Facione (1992), to measure the student’s disposition of critical thinking. Student guide and four ill structure scenario, It was developed by the researchers about actual or potential problems related to four managerial skills namely (motivation, manage change, leadership, and communication), and Knowledge test, which developed by the researchers, used to assess students knowledge acquisition and retention. Conclusion: There were statistical significant improvements instudent critical thinking post PBL than pre intervention. Also, self-confidence item of critical thinking had high percent of change post intervention followed by inquisitiveness and maturity. Increasing of total mean score of knowledge acquisition and retention of the experimental group than total mean score of knowledge acquisition and retention of control group. No statistical significant correlation betweenstudent total knowledge of experimental group and their critical thinking post intervention. Recommendation: The study recommended that: Problem-based learning should be incorporated into the curriculum to encourage engagement and relatedness. Teachers should continue to incorporate strategies that employ higher-order thinking skills into the curriculum (e.g. PBL, case studies, and comprehensive projects). Instruction in the facilitation of PBL should be incorporated into teacher education prou2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “El-shaer”, “given” : “Ahlam”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gaber”, “given” : “Hala”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Education and Practices”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “14”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “74-86”, “title” : “Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Students` Critical Thinking Dispositions, Knowledge Acquisition and Retention”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ce81bfc-d8a1-4540-804d-1da137a51e36” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(El-shaer ; Gaber, 2014). This is known as employing ‘higher order thinking skills’. Learning higher order thinking-related abilities such as critical thinking has always been the final goal of education. Although the word critical can mean to find fault or to criticize, critical thinking is not a negative activity. Critical thinking was define as the identification and process of figuring out the worth, amount, or quality of something to guide decision making.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Innovative Student ( Dependent Variable)
Teachers know all too well the constant challenge of how best to use technology when helping students learn. With the increased availability of the internet and computer applications over the past 20 years, college and university professors have strengthened their loyalty to use computer technology to improve classroom learningADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s10984-012-9108-4”, “ISBN” : “1387-1579”, “ISSN” : “13871579”, “PMID” : “79448177”, “abstract” : “Recent technological developments have given rise to blended learning classrooms. An inverted (or flipped) classroom is a specific type of blended learning design that uses technology to move lectures outside the classroom and uses learning activities to move practice with concepts inside the classroom. This article compares the learning environments of an inverted introductory statistics class with a traditional introductory statistics class at the same university. This mixed-methods research study used the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI), field notes, interviews and focus groups to investigate the learning environments of these two classrooms. Students in the inverted classroom were less satisfied with how the classroom structure oriented them to the learning tasks in the course, but they became more open to cooperative learning and innovative teaching methods. These findings are discussed in terms of how they contribute to the stability and connectedness of classroom learning communities.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Strayer”, “given” : “Jeremy F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Learning Environments Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “171-193”, “title” : “How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “15” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=291d99a7-5689-4896-84bd-a4a27f52e831” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Strayer, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Strayer, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Strayer, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Strayer, 2012). As with any educational tool, there are many success plans for using computer technology. One such a way of reaching goals depends on technology to introduce students to course content outside of the classroom so that students can engage that content at a deeper level inside the classroom. Innovative student behavior will occur when there is something new or unique of idea from student towards their learning process.

The fast moving ahead of computer and network technologies has attracted people who work to find information to develop tools and success plans for managing and doing computer-helped learning activities. With these new technologies, innovative student learning content becomes rich and many different kinds of people because of the use of hypermedia and combining video, sound, words, and pictures together presentations. Researcher have pointed to that hypermedia systems are good for providing decorated with a personal touch learning supports or guidance by identifying the personal qualities of students and adapting the presentation styles or learning paths in the same wayADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/jeductechsoci.16.4.185”, “ISBN” : “14364522”, “ISSN” : “1436-4522”, “PMID” : “92862039”, “abstract” : “In this study, an adaptive learning system is developed by taking multiple dimensions of personalized features into account. A personalized presentation module is proposed for developing adaptive learning systems based on the field dependent/independent cognitive style model and the eight dimensions of Felder-Silverman’s learning style. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach in a computer science course. Fifty-four participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group which learned with an adaptive learning system developed based on the personalized presentation module, and a control group which learned with the conventional learning system without personalized presentation. The experimental results showed that the experimental group students revealed significantly better learning achievements than the control group students, implying that the proposed approach is able to assist the students in improving their learning performance.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yang”, “given” : “Tzu-Chi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hwang”, “given” : “Gwo-Jen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yang”, “given” : “Stephen Jen-Hwa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Technology & Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “185-200”, “title” : “Development of an adaptive learning system with multiple perspectives based on students’ learning styles and cognitive styles”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ec8dca0f-60d8-4b50-9c31-a6cea3adb9bf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yang, Hwang, & Yang, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yang, Hwang, & Yang, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yang, Hwang, & Yang, 2013)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Yang, Hwang, ; Yang, 2013). In the past ten years, different decoration with a personal touch ways of doing things have been proposed for developing is able to change and get better hypermedia learning systems, and have showed the benefit of such an approach. For example, an able to change and get better learning system by taking students’ knowledge levels as the main factor for adapting the learning that composes decorated with a personal touch learning content by thinking about people knowledge level and the difficulty level of the learning objects.

Teachers thinking ability were still in love with the lecture method, so people found ways to include the newly developed technology into their classes, basically making it less likely that students would simply sit and without trying to stop or change what’s happening that they are listen. Probably the most fancy or smart approach is the interactive lecture demo (ILD) which has students in a lecture hall or a classroom but not a lab watch an act of showing or proving then describe a possible future event the kind of data that would soon be gathered from teacher-operated computer sensorsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/tl”, “ISBN” : “1536-0768”, “ISSN” : “02710633”, “PMID” : “35859038”, “abstract” : “In his book “Creating Significant Learning Experiences” (2003), Dee Fink challenges professors to create a deep vision for the courses they teach. Educators often have a vision for what their courses could be, but often lack a model for instituting change. Fink’s book provides that model. In this article, the author describes how this model helped him use more active learning experiences that not only deepened students’ understanding of musical forms but also enabled students to creatively play with those forms.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kelley”, “given” : “Bruce C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “New Directions for Teaching and Learning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “119”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “35-41”, “title” : “Inspiration and intellect: Significant learning in musical forms and analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=425ba1e0-e4f0-4fb5-8032-1d34432fb95b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kelley, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kelley, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kelley, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kelley, 2009). Studies have shown relatively large learning gains when instructors carefully follow the explained ILD instructions. Innovative student can be detect by the way of their learning process where from that their learning process will conquer and influence the way of their thinking of getting new and unique ideas.

Sources: http://ignatiawebs.blogspot.my/2014/07/linking-k12-to-mlearning-networked.htmlThe graph above is showed an innovative pedagogical practices where it stated the vital process that are needed in order to approach an innovative student. The teacher and students intensively used technology. They made use of technology as an device that makes music to complete different tasks. For instance, they used the computer as an effective presentation tool, communication tool, production tool for data retrieval and storage. Sometimes, the technology itself could be a part of the learning conditions. For example, the Internet could be a very rich source of information in which students learned many things. This technology-embedded learning conditions can be used to improve students’ learning in terms of wasting very little while working or producing something and effectivenessADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “12069620”, “abstract” : “Like many other countries, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has invested heavily in the computer facilities of schools. It is expected that by using ICT, the quality of education will be enhanced through a paradigm shift in school pedagogical practices. However, some educational innovations resulted in disappointing outcomes and some of them did make the progress expected and failed to sustain their development. This research addresses such problems by presenting a model that provides guidance on how to facilitate effective and sustainable Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using Technology (IPPUT). The model was derived from an in-depth case study of one innovative primary school in Hong Kong. The research first investigated what an innovative classroom might look like, then by using the “Layer-Two” Model Instrument (Typology of ICT Uptake) (Newhouse, Trinidad, & Clarkson, 2002) and other Matrix Construction Techniques (Miles & Huberman, 1984), various conditions and constraints on the development of IPPUT were identified, subsumed and grouped into two “issue trees.” It is particularly useful for the school leaders to formulate optimum strategies for implementing IPPUT by comparing their school’s realistic situations with those factors in the two “issue trees”. Finally, the whole-school system model was presented suggesting that given favourable conditions including visionary school leadership, whole-hearted collaboration and participation of all school stakeholders, with a systematic managerial methodology, it is possible to have true ICT integration and sustainable pedagogically-sound environments for students’ learning. (Contains 5 figures and 2 tables.)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tong”, “given” : “K. P.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Trinidad”, “given” : “S. G.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2000”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “title” : “Conditions and constraints of sustainable innovative pedagogical practices using technology”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “9” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e1cd3486-f8e6-4b78-8a7d-6486c7a67025” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Tong & Trinidad, 2005)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Tong & Trinidad, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Tong & Trinidad, 2005)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Tong & Trinidad, 2005).
Tries to use the technology development such as smartphones, tablets as well as laptop have a wide chance in helping increase the right way of practices on teaching and learning in college. Improving effectiveness and wasting very little while working with worldwide became visible to the online learning, any approach to fulfill the needs in improving the learning quality process to provide information from many sources refers to adopt the way which helps in getting teaching and learning useful things suppliesADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0000000167”, “ISSN” : “09739769”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Huda”, “given” : “Miftachul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Haron”, “given” : “Zulkiflee”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ripin”, “given” : “Mohd Nasir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hehsan”, “given” : “Aminudin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yaacob”, “given” : “Ahmad Bin Che”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Applied Engineering Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “17”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “6678-6685”, “title” : “Exploring innovative learning environment (ILE): Big data era”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c92ee35-7b94-4579-8765-3e4e908deba8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Huda, Haron, Ripin, Hehsan, & Yaacob, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Huda, Haron, Ripin, Hehsan, & Yaacob, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Huda, Haron, Ripin, Hehsan, & Yaacob, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Huda, Haron, Ripin, Hehsan, & Yaacob, 2017). Helping this process committed in testing/evaluating online learning supported easily through the recommendation improves the whole effort to begin on doing something to change the sources. More than that, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) with the process in preparing practical basis with the standard is putting into use the solid basic structure on which bigger things can be built of big data should be transmitted into the particular job to help the related to social pressure, how people act toward each other concern in terms of teaching and learning, running for business, and communication purposes.

Students are expected to master the knowledge that clearly connected with or related to the problem to be solvedADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Background: The recent campaign seeks to shed light on the move to a new delivery system approach in nursing schools, where student centered learning such as problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced to replace the teacher centered learning in an effort to promote nursing students critical thinking ability, enhance their knowledge acquisition and retention, autonomy, and professional identity. Aim: to examine the impact of problem based learning on students’ critical thinking dispositions, knowledge acquisition and retention. Methods: The study was used quasi-experimental design and conducted at the Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University. The total number of the nursing students enrolled in the 3rd year (2011-2012) (n= 385 nursing students) Only 200 students, were agreed to participate in this study, which divided randomly into two groups. 100 students were experimental group and100 students were control group. Data was collected by using three tools: The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTID) questionnaire. It was developed by Facione ; Facione (1992), to measure the student’s disposition of critical thinking. Student guide and four ill structure scenario, It was developed by the researchers about actual or potential problems related to four managerial skills namely (motivation, manage change, leadership, and communication), and Knowledge test, which developed by the researchers, used to assess students knowledge acquisition and retention. Conclusion: There were statistical significant improvements instudent critical thinking post PBL than pre intervention. Also, self-confidence item of critical thinking had high percent of change post intervention followed by inquisitiveness and maturity. Increasing of total mean score of knowledge acquisition and retention of the experimental group than total mean score of knowledge acquisition and retention of control group. No statistical significant correlation betweenstudent total knowledge of experimental group and their critical thinking post intervention. Recommendation: The study recommended that: Problem-based learning should be incorporated into the curriculum to encourage engagement and relatedness. Teachers should continue to incorporate strategies that employ higher-order thinking skills into the curriculum (e.g. PBL, case studies, and comprehensive projects). Instruction in the facilitation of PBL should be incorporated into teacher education prou2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “El-shaer”, “given” : “Ahlam”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gaber”, “given” : “Hala”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Education and Practices”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “14”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “74-86”, “title” : “Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Students` Critical Thinking Dispositions, Knowledge Acquisition and Retention”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ce81bfc-d8a1-4540-804d-1da137a51e36” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014). Then, students conduct a group where they are working in a group to get ideas and discussion session. They exchange and share their information with all the learning issues and educated guesses, and should reach an acceptable definition that is agreed upon by all members. From the discussion, student can built their innovative idea in order to be one of innovative student where can think outside of the box.

2.2 Creativity (Independent Variable)
Being soft, social software is rich with grouping together possibility of human activities, and may be deeply laced together with social and organizational processesADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.15215/aupress/9781927356807.01”, “ISBN” : “9781927356814”, “abstract” : “Within the rapidly expanding field of educational technology, learners and educators must confront a seemingly overwhelming selection of tools designed to deliver and facilitate both online and blended learning. Many of these tools assume that learning is configured and delivered in closed contexts, through learning management systems (LMS). However, while traditional “classroom” learning is by no means obsolete, networked learning is in the ascendant. A foundational method in online and blended education, as well as the most common means of informal and self-directed learning, networked learning is rapidly becoming the dominant mode of teaching as well as learning.\r\n\r\nIn Teaching Crowds, Dron and Anderson introduce a new model for understanding and exploiting the pedagogical potential of Web-based technologies, one that rests on connections u2014 on networks and collectives u2014 rather than on separations. Recognizing that online learning both demands and affords new models of teaching and learning, the authors show how learners can engage with social media platforms to create an unbounded field of emergent connections. These connections empower learners, allowing them to draw from one anotheru2019s expertise to formulate and fulfill their own educational goals. In an increasingly networked world, developing such skills will, they argue, better prepare students to become self-directed, lifelong learners.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anderson”, “given” : “Terry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dron”, “given” : “Jon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e810c795-f010-4c1a-a02a-9fa2685ab40b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anderson & Dron, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anderson & Dron, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anderson & Dron, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anderson & Dron, 2014). Unlike more made to do one thing very well tools that are designed for particular purposes and have little flexibility, if any at all, for other choice uses, social software enables to showing the ability to create interesting new things with the uses and purposes that its designers probably never dreamed of. It is this way for a change and ability to create interesting new things in learning and teaching. Although it would be a statement that says that something is much bigger to suggest that all students enjoy working and learning with others, the opportunity to make new social contacts and build new networks of friends is an important reason why many work at formal educational activities.

According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0311-2543, 0311-2543”, “ISSN” : “03112543”, “PMID” : “1545869209”, “abstract” : “With a classroom full of millennial learners, it is essential that teacher educators adjust their pedagogy to meet their studentsu2019 needs. This study explores the use of a flipped classroom model to engage preservice teachers in an Introduction to the Teaching Profession course. In addition, it explores the need for teacher education coursework to model innovative teaching strategies, such as flipped classrooms, in an effort to prepare preservice teachers for future students. Results indicated that students displayed a higher level of reflection and inquiry in their coursework and a greater number of instructional strategies were modelled within the course. Introduction”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vaughan”, “given” : “Michelle”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education Research and Perspectives”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “25-41”, “title” : “Flipping the Learning : An Investigation into the use of the Flipped Classroom Model in an Introductory Teaching Course”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “41” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d1055f0d-9063-406b-ae13-7e7639185c92” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vaughan, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “Vaughan(2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vaughan, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vaughan, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Vaughan(2014) state that in order to make sure that students reflected on the course material and came to class prepared for an activity, they needed a space for reflection that also allowed the professor to view and record learning. The answer to this was a showing the ability to create interesting new things form of discussion board posting. Within each lecture, there was an embedded discussion on time that students needed to listen for and write down. As the goal was to make sure students were actively listening, the prompt was not listed on a slide and the location varied within the lecture. The placement depended on what they were to reflect on and was given out where it was appropriate. Students were demanded to watch the lecture and respond to the discussion question by midnight on the day before class met. The professor could log into the discussion board before class, have a read through the postings and gain an instant idea of what the students took away from the lecture, where they needed support and what mistakes in thinking needed to be talked to. This was extremely valuable to creating a successful learning experience in class and needed students to be active listeners not allowing something to happen without reacting or trying to stop it receivers of knowledge. Beside that, student can creatively think about the solution in order to identify the answer or the question given.
Creativity plays an important role in getting worldwide competitive advantage because it is the visible and obvious of wisdom and knowledge of the human brain, which can change ability to create interesting new things into money-based value and offer people and organizations a sustained competitive advantageADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.tsc.2013.09.004”, “ISBN” : “1871-1871”, “ISSN” : “18711871”, “abstract” : “This study aims to explore the key factors affecting the creativity development of college students. The multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach was adopted to construct an objective and effective analytical model of critical factors influencing college students’ creativity. The fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) was first employed to screen the critical influential factors (criteria/sub-criteria) categorized by four dimensions: “Individual qualities,” “Family background,” “School element,” and “Community”, which are synthesized from the literature review and in consultation with experts from relevant fields in Taiwan. Then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method was applied to calculate the relative weights of the selected critical criteria/sub-criteria that impact creativity for college students. Through expert consensus, the analysis results indicate the “Community” dimension, including two criteria, “Social education environment” and “Social cultural environment,” has the most impact on creativity development for college students. And the top three critical influential sub-criteria are “Oppressive of environmental behavior,” “Respect for intellectual property,” and “Integration of creative education.” Therefore, based on the findings, it implies that an enhanced social environment, which can create an adequate stimulus from the external environment, construct a protective domain of knowledge and creativity suitable for knowledge-based economic era, and instill diverse creativity education into daily life, is considered as the most important factor affecting college students’ creativity development by the experts. The prioritized weights analyzed by the proposed model can not only serve as a useful self-assessment tool for college students to better understand key influential factors on their own creative abilities for developing their potential creativity, but also can provide an important reference for educational units and/or interested parties in policy making and strategies to help effectively promote college students’ creativity development. u00a9 2013 Elsevier Ltd.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wu”, “given” : “Hung Yi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wu”, “given” : “Hung Shu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chen”, “given” : “I. Shuo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chen”, “given” : “Hui Chun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Thinking Skills and Creativity”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-21”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Exploring the critical influential factors of creativity for college students: A multiple criteria decision-making approach”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=66dac73c-8ccf-4322-8050-7ffc2f6cc38c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wu, Wu, Chen, ; Chen, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wu, Wu, Chen, ; Chen, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wu, Wu, Chen, ; Chen, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wu, Wu, Chen, & Chen, 2014). So, the ability to create interesting new things is also considered as very valuable thing of the human brain, a necessary related in the 21st century, and a powerful means to improve the quality of life. Given the important event that high-tech development is growing quickly and (a community of people living well together) is improving very much, it has been a critical mission for schools to help develop creativity talent that deals with the needs of each nation, especially in college.

Books date has paid attention mainly to university students’ cleverness, especially in the big picture of small-business starting. Cleverness, often connected with creative with business potential where can be thought of as a personality feature that hints a ‘willingness to change’ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/03075079.2015.1087993”, “ISSN” : “1470174X”, “abstract” : “Innovation in the workplace has been claimed to be a key factor in organizational survival and success. As future workers, university students are a major source of future innovations in organizational settings. Before they enter the labour market, it is in the context of Higher Education that they start developing some of their long-term behaviours, such as innovation behaviours. This study aims to explore the main determinants of university studentsu2019 innovation behaviours from a longitudinal perspective. The sample comprised 78 students of Psychology, Management, Fine Arts and Education. The results of this study show that previous innovation behaviours as freshmen, current levels of autonomy and cognitive demands are positively related to individual innovation among university students. Practical implications regarding how to foster innovation efforts in the context of Higher Education are discussed. u00a9 2015 Society for Research into Higher Education.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Martu00edn”, “given” : “P.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Potou010dnik”, “given” : “K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fras”, “given” : “A. B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Studies in Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1229-1243”, “title” : “Determinants of studentsu2019 innovation in Higher Education”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=28aab6d2-1e25-42c0-aa71-6b4f4558f63e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Martu00edn, Potou010dnik, ; Fras, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Martu00edn, Potou010dnik, ; Fras, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Martu00edn, Potou010dnik, ; Fras, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Martín, Poto?nik, & Fras, 2017). Even though studies done in this big picture have gotten interesting and clearly connected or related results, individual invention of new things is more than just the natural tendency to think in a way that shows good ability to create interesting new things. It is important to note that undergraduates’ mental well-being is not a minor matter. In fact, some say as extremely important not only to meet the learning results but also for their successful.

Helping the development of graduate student creativity is becoming especially important in the current time in history focused on the knowledge-based. For example, reported that the need to improve creativity and invention of new things in graduate students has specific national importance in the USAADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/03075079.2015.1072149”, “ISSN” : “1470174X”, “abstract” : “u00a9 2015 Society for Research into Higher EducationBased on social cognitive theory and leadership theory, the current study tests a theoretical model linking supervisory styles (i.e. supportive and directive) with graduate student creativity via psychological cognitive factors (specifically, creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation). Results from a sample of 216 graduate students of 1 university in China indicate that both creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation completely mediate the influences of supportive supervisory style and directive supervisory style on graduate student creativity. Interestingly, the results indicate a positive influence of directive supervisory style on graduate student creativity, which is inconsistent with the literature and our own original hypothesis. Our findings verify that creative self-efficacy has an indirect effect on graduate student creativity by influencing intrinsic motivation. We discuss the implications of these findings for both theory and practice.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gu”, “given” : “Jibao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “He”, “given” : “Changqing”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liu”, “given” : “Hefu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Studies in Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “721-742”, “title” : “Supervisory styles and graduate student creativity: the mediating roles of creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba0dedf9-c2c6-4357-886f-95fa22cdf4fa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gu, He, ; Liu, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, He, ; Liu, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, He, ; Liu, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gu, He, & Liu, 2017). People who work to find information and professionals or skilled people have more and more achieved the importance of improving graduate student creativity. However, some studies point out that developing graduate student ability to create interesting new things is still a challenging job for college. Therefore, exploring the very important factors that influence graduate student creativity can help identify major problems in graduate education, this way helping the development of graduate student ability to create interesting new things.

The graph shows that the evolution from year 2000 where the introduction of internet was started until year 2016 follow by the evolution of technology. This is because of this evolution, it lead to the creativity of a student in terms of their thinking and produces unique ideas. Test is a key site of student engagement, playing very important roles in both student learning and certification. Technologies to support test which is have a long history in college from the early days of programmed instruction and computer based quizzes, to richer forms of interaction and creating documents supported by constructivist approaches, and more recent tools that support online assignment submissionADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/bjet.12439”, “ISSN” : “00071013”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bennett”, “given” : “Sue”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dawson”, “given” : “Phillip”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bearman”, “given” : “Margaret”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Molloy”, “given” : “Elizabeth”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “00”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “672-682”, “title” : “How technology shapes assessment design : Findings from a study of university teachers”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “00” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=68934497-51fb-4324-83d3-44b7df8bdee9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bennett, Dawson, Bearman, ; Molloy, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bennett, Dawson, Bearman, ; Molloy, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bennett, Dawson, Bearman, ; Molloy, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bennett, Dawson, Bearman, & Molloy, 2016). Student can creatively think on how they wants to managed their assessment with the convenient on internet and devices that they have.

Sources: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/12/evolution-of-technology/ft_17-01-10_internetfactsheets/2.3 Ability to Think Abstractly (Independent Variable)
This involves seeing patterns beyond the obvious and using patterns or a variety of ideas or clues to solve larger problems. In contrast, concrete thinking involves looking at things on the surface and using this information to solve problems in their most literal sense. Concrete thinkers reason in terms of facts, events, and clearly stated examples, whereas abstract thinkers move away from these specific things and reason in terms of big statements based on very little information, ideas, and deeper meaningsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.21300/18.4.2017.319”, “ISSN” : “1949-8241”, “abstract” : “This paper will review current thinking about innovation and identify key innovative traits as initial steps in exploring the feasibility of teaching innovative thinking. While education may not be able to create innovative traits in individuals, education may improve the ability of individuals to utilize the traits they already possess. Therefore, we begin by defining innovation and identifying the characteristics, traits, and thought processes of innovative individuals or groups of individuals and the environments that they exist in using the existing literature and personal experience. This information will help formulate a process to educate individuals to better utilize their innovative traits. If we can envision a curve depicting the utilization of traits, where on the left of the curve we would place individuals with a low utilization, on the right of the curve would be individuals with a very high utilization rate, and in the middle a distribution between the two extremes, our goal would be to develop an educational process whereby we could show individuals how to fully utilize the traits they have, awaken traits that are dormant, and, in so doing, shift the distribution toward fuller utilization. With greater utilization of innovative traits, we could then expect to increase the number of innovations that individuals or groups of individuals contribute to our society.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Poirier”, “given” : “Victor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schwartz”, “given” : “Lyle H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eddy”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Berman”, “given” : “Richard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chacour”, “given” : “Selim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wynne”, “given” : “James J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cavanaugh”, “given” : “William”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Martin”, “given” : “Dean F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Byrne”, “given” : “Robert”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sanberg”, “given” : “Paul R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Technology and Innovation”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “319-330”, “title” : “Thoughts on Improving Innovation : What Are the Characteristics of Innovation and How Do We Cultivate Them ?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0dc612f3-336b-42c6-ad0d-a6f095dfec33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Poirier et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Poirier et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Poirier et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Poirier et al., 2017). Thinking about ideas and possibilities can lead to improvements in new and interesting of thought, student should be able to use educational ways of doing things to improve the process of thinking about ideas and possibilities in people who rarely use these born-in qualities. By increasing the use of abstract thinking in people, we can increase the driving force to improvements in invention of new things and the new and interesting thinking process. As abstract thinkers can think “outside of the box,” this thinking process will be very helpful in problem solving by asking pointed questions that no one else has, questions that can lead to solutions.

The complex idea of Design Thinking has been supported and discussed back and forth over the past half century. It is broadly described as a style of thinking, or as the study of the thinking-related processes that are (after that) showed in design action. Design Thinking can be described as thinking-related processes that designers use, as argue to the designed objects they produceADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/14703297.2015.1108214”, “ISBN” : “14703297 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “14703300”, “abstract” : “AbstractAs global industries change and technology advances, traditional education systems might no longer be able to supply companies with graduates who possess an appropriate mix of skills and experience. The recent increased interest in Design Thinking as an approach to innovation has resulted in its adoption by non-design-trained professionals. This development necessitates a new method of teaching Design Thinking and its related skills and processes. As a basis for such a method, this research investigated 51 selected courses across 28 international universities to determine what Design Thinking is being taught (content), and how it is being taught (assessment and learning modes). To support the teaching and assessment of Design Thinking, this paper presents The Educational Design Ladder, an innovative resource/model that provides a process for the organisation and structuring of units for a multidisciplinary Design Thinking programme.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wrigley”, “given” : “Cara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Straker”, “given” : “Kara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Innovations in Education and Teaching International”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “374-385”, “title” : “Design Thinking pedagogy: the Educational Design Ladder”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “54” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=87652b95-a9ef-4f11-a004-bdefe3237a5a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wrigley ; Straker, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wrigley ; Straker, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wrigley ; Straker, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wrigley & Straker, 2017). It is generally thought about/believed as the ability to combine deeply caring, understanding feelings, (ability to create interesting new things) and clear and sensible thinking to analyze and fit solutions to particular contexts. Based on the figure below, it’s easy to misunderstand this model and assume that, if you’re working at this intersection, you’re necessarily creating new things. If only this were the case, this intersection is actually where opportunities for practical invention of new things that is the inventions of new things that actually stand a chance of being achieve. This model of invention of new things is most useful as a gate, securing that flights of fancy meet the judging requirements for take-off. In the past, finding that intersection could be quite challenging for most problems. The development of the needed technologies was very hard and demanded a lot of made to do one thing very well knowledge. Communicating directly with people who use a product or service to understand their needs was challenging. Business needed things were often poorly understood when physical retail was still the rule. Invention of new things was hard, and people often felt scared in trying to accomplish or gain with effort it.

Sources : https://www.possible.com/pov/the-conundrum-of-humdrum-innovationIt is obvious from what before now talk about developing showing the ability to create interesting new things thinking, the teacher must confirm thinking about how thinking works processes and practice its skills and success plans. Teachers should be aware of the meaning of ability to create interesting new things and the ways of doing things of developing it in addition to the need of modeling the showing the ability to create interesting new things processes by the teacher in front of the studentsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5539/ijel.v7n3p103”, “ISSN” : “1923-8703”, “abstract” : “;p;The study aims at finding out the impact of metacognition strategies in the teaching of mathematics in developing creative thinking among gifted primary school students in Rafha province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They are defined in this study as the students whose IQ score is (120 and above) according to the Wakslar measurement for children intelligence and are selected by their teachers. The study sample consists of 40 male and female students from the fifth class in the primary stage. They were divided randomly into two groups; experimental group which was taught by the methods and strategies of the suggested teaching program and a control group upon whom the ordinary method was applied. Each group included 20 male and female students. For the purpose of the study, a creative thinking measurement in mathematics, designed by the researchers, was used for data collecting. The program was implemented for three successive weeks, three sessions per week each one lasting for one period. After finishing the program, a post measurement was conducted for all the study variables for both the experimental and control groups. The results show statistically significant differences at the significance level (0.05) between using the metacognition strategies on one hand and the ordinary method on the other. The differences were in favor of the metacognition strategies.;/p;”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rizk”, “given” : “Nahed Mokhtar Hassan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Attia”, “given” : “Khaled Ahmed Mahmoud”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Al-Jundi”, “given” : “Alaa Ahmed Hassan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of English Linguistics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “103”, “title” : “The Impact of Metacognition Strategies in Teaching Mathematics among Innovative Thinking Students in Primary School, Rafha, KSA”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c9faa330-5235-49f8-a876-10b2d692735f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rizk, Attia, ; Al-Jundi, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rizk, Attia, ; Al-Jundi, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rizk, Attia, ; Al-Jundi, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rizk, Attia, & Al-Jundi, 2017). It is also important to clear up the problems facing them in order to arrive to creative solutions. Programs offered to talented students are complicated because they are oriented to special category of students who are showed with outstanding mental abilities, close instance of watching, noticing, or making a statement, interest in getting knowledge and ability of thinking. The great educational interest that must be focused on in designing these programs is the type of thinking. Interest has changed from educational programs that depend on memorization and instruction to the education that aims mainly at developing thinking skills.

Making the most of learning of higher-order thinking skills (HOTs) with information and communication technology (ICT) has been deep-rooted and importance and focused in multiple developed countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America and SingaporeADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “http://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2017-2301-06”, “ISSN” : “01285157”, “abstract” : “The birth of the Malaysia Higher Education Blueprint (2015-2025) consolidates the Ministryu2019s overriding aspiration to create a higher education system that ranks among the worldu2019s leading education systems and that enables Malaysia to compete in the global economy by specifically promoting Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and innovations that address studentsu2019 needs and enable greater personalisation of the learning experience (Ganapathy et al. 2016). This exploratory study is vital in gaining deeper insights into the current teaching and learning practices used by ESL lecturers, the types of ICT used in their classes, their views on the integration of these skills into the curriculum and the application methods of teaching and learning using ICT to promote Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTs). Data were collected using purposive sampling where 40 participants were selected to take part in answering a questionnaire and participating in an interview. These respondents for this study comprised of a group of lecturers teaching English major degree courses in a public university in Malaysia. The findings of this study contribute a significant amount of information to the statistics of ESL teaching and learning in higher education especially in using ICT to promote HOTs. Findings from this study provide several important insights on the potential opportunities of technologies in facilitating higher order thinking but success lies on the tasks that are appropriately designed for promoting the content. This study found that ESL lecturers encounter challenges that need to be addressed in order to facilitate the learning process with the integration of ICT as a supplementary tool in promoting higher order thinking skills.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Malini Ganapathy”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Manjet Kaur”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mehar Singh”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sarjit Kaur”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wai Kit”, “given” : “Liew”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “75-85”, “title” : “Promoting higher order thinking skills via teaching practices”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “23” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61730a94-f446-4a1b-827b-b1136c0d2e18” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Malini Ganapathy, Manjet Kaur, Mehar Singh, Sarjit Kaur, ; Wai Kit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Malini Ganapathy, Manjet Kaur, Mehar Singh, Sarjit Kaur, ; Wai Kit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Malini Ganapathy, Manjet Kaur, Mehar Singh, Sarjit Kaur, ; Wai Kit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Malini Ganapathy, Manjet Kaur, Mehar Singh, Sarjit Kaur, & Wai Kit, 2017). It is to be noted that these evaluations on ICT which is the combination of different things together that work as one unit to show in a good way the groups of schools have been focusing. Through this program, lecturers are expected to combine different things together. Another important aspect that related to education which needs teachers to help increase HOTs was heavily importance and focused in the National Higher Education Action Plan (NHEAP) and the Malaysian Education written plans for building something also. Such new and interesting thinking and /ways of reaching goals require people who work to find information to ask lots of questions about what to extent it is incorporated among university lecturers and students. ICT can provide Generation Y students with a best learning state and as an answer to solve their short ability to mentally focus on something.
Students are also delays in building their thinking related materials such as thermo chemical micro, acids and bases and chemical changes with the reason his lack of practicum activities in the learning process .In constructivist learning, learners are actively developing their knowledge by thinking, doing and interacting with the surrounding of conditionsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “4357973589”, “container-title” : “Africa”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2003” }, “page” : “1-17”, “title” : “Th 2003”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2004” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bf548a67-15d7-4043-bb8e-72cce893aba2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u201cTh 2003,u201d 2003)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u201cTh 2003,u201d 2003)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u201cTh 2003,u201d 2003)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(“Th 2003,” 2003). The use of the laboratory is the putting into use of a constructivism approach for effectively improving the ability to develop an understanding of learners through interactions with their surroundings. Question processes address many thinking and learning skills such as very important thinking, creative thinking, self-controlled learning skills, metacognitive ability and communication skills. The findings of the study tell about that question based teaching approach have a positive effect on students’ of action of accomplishing or completing something challenging. Student’s attitude towards science process skill changed after using question learning model also, the findings pointed to that the learning results of the question learning model, the action of accomplishing or completing something challenging of most students from the two groups are at a good level. This means that question or investigation-based learning can be used as one method to improve student action of accomplishing or completing something challenging.
2.4 Innovative Environments (Independent Variable)
According to the research done by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.21300/18.4.2017.319”, “ISSN” : “1949-8241”, “abstract” : “This paper will review current thinking about innovation and identify key innovative traits as initial steps in exploring the feasibility of teaching innovative thinking. While education may not be able to create innovative traits in individuals, education may improve the ability of individuals to utilize the traits they already possess. Therefore, we begin by defining innovation and identifying the characteristics, traits, and thought processes of innovative individuals or groups of individuals and the environments that they exist in using the existing literature and personal experience. This information will help formulate a process to educate individuals to better utilize their innovative traits. If we can envision a curve depicting the utilization of traits, where on the left of the curve we would place individuals with a low utilization, on the right of the curve would be individuals with a very high utilization rate, and in the middle a distribution between the two extremes, our goal would be to develop an educational process whereby we could show individuals how to fully utilize the traits they have, awaken traits that are dormant, and, in so doing, shift the distribution toward fuller utilization. With greater utilization of innovative traits, we could then expect to increase the number of innovations that individuals or groups of individuals contribute to our society.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Poirier”, “given” : “Victor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schwartz”, “given” : “Lyle H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eddy”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Berman”, “given” : “Richard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chacour”, “given” : “Selim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wynne”, “given” : “James J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cavanaugh”, “given” : “William”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Martin”, “given” : “Dean F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Byrne”, “given” : “Robert”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sanberg”, “given” : “Paul R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Technology and Innovation”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “319-330”, “title” : “Thoughts on Improving Innovation : What Are the Characteristics of Innovation and How Do We Cultivate Them ?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0dc612f3-336b-42c6-ad0d-a6f095dfec33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Poirier et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Poirier (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Poirier et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Poirier et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Poirier (2017) state that having believed the invention of new things process, the qualities of new and interesting people, and the importance of new and interesting surrounding conditions, we must now think about how to use this information to create a producing a lot with very little waste and effective educational process to clearly and understandably improve invention of new things results. We believe that we do not need to try to create new and interesting features rather, we simply need to show people how to help grow new and interesting thought by fully using the qualities they already have, awakening inactive qualities, and understanding the importance of related to what’s near the object or word being studied factors, or the invention of new things surrounding conditions. In doing so, we would “shift the curve to the right,” allowing people to improve their new and interesting thinking and increase the quality and number of inventions of new things they create.

Social software, especially social networking, blurs the difference between formal and informal learning. Research on learning often divides into two learning into two often to both hateful camps such as formal education, with its institutional champions of approval from an organization, and informal learning, supported by fighters for something of community, workplace, informal and unplanned learningADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.15215/aupress/9781927356807.01”, “ISBN” : “9781927356814”, “abstract” : “Within the rapidly expanding field of educational technology, learners and educators must confront a seemingly overwhelming selection of tools designed to deliver and facilitate both online and blended learning. Many of these tools assume that learning is configured and delivered in closed contexts, through learning management systems (LMS). However, while traditional “classroom” learning is by no means obsolete, networked learning is in the ascendant. A foundational method in online and blended education, as well as the most common means of informal and self-directed learning, networked learning is rapidly becoming the dominant mode of teaching as well as learning.\r\n\r\nIn Teaching Crowds, Dron and Anderson introduce a new model for understanding and exploiting the pedagogical potential of Web-based technologies, one that rests on connections u2014 on networks and collectives u2014 rather than on separations. Recognizing that online learning both demands and affords new models of teaching and learning, the authors show how learners can engage with social media platforms to create an unbounded field of emergent connections. These connections empower learners, allowing them to draw from one anotheru2019s expertise to formulate and fulfill their own educational goals. In an increasingly networked world, developing such skills will, they argue, better prepare students to become self-directed, lifelong learners.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anderson”, “given” : “Terry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dron”, “given” : “Jon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e810c795-f010-4c1a-a02a-9fa2685ab40b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anderson ; Dron, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anderson ; Dron, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anderson ; Dron, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anderson & Dron, 2014). For example informal learning is described as being :Integrated with daily routines–in contrast to formal education, which happens at times and places defined by the educational institution.

Triggered by an internal or external jolt. In formal education, the “jolt” almost always starts with needed things set by the teacher.
Not highly conscious. Although formal education has also been criticized for putting learners to sleep in lecture theatres, the purpose of the education is always made clear in terms of expected learning results.
Disorganized and influenced by chance. In formal settings, the course outline makes sure of that school courses are followed and certainly not influenced by chance.
An inductive process of reflection and action. Although not kept out, reflection and action where ideas are validated in real-life contexts are rare in formal education.
Linked to the learning of others. Formal education is almost always a contest among registered students for marks awarded by teachers, making the creation of group working well together and supportive learning challenging, though not impossible.

In order to ask lots of questions about the influence of the social system, that is to say the surrounding conditions of the organization on its ability to soak up like a towel and gain invention of new things, a having to do with figuring out. The quality of things without measuring them with numbers research was carried out to define the measuring tool for the most important things of this particular of surrounding conditions for the recognition and acceptance of e-learning in teachers or professorsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The paper deals with the diffusion of e- learning model as an innovation in a higher education institution (university, faculty). Apart from the two basic phases in the process, namely the initiation phases u2013 until the decision about the innovation has been made and the implementation phases which follows after that and two basic individual components of the diffusion of innovation model; previous related knowledge and perceived properties of innovation, the model described here recognizes the factors of the organization environment which influence its potential capacity to absorb innovation. The qualitative research disclosed five key factors of the social environment, six factors of the business environment and sixteen factors of the internal environment which have impact on the organization in the initial phase of the process of diffusion of e-learning in faculties in the Republic of Croatia. Keywords:”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Buu0107”, “given” : “Sanjana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Divjak”, “given” : “Blau017eenka”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Central European Conference on Inforation and Intelligent Systems”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “99-106”, “title” : “Environmental factors in the diffusion of innovation model : diffusion of e-learning in a higher education”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ea941c39-2368-4f39-b673-ccf74abfeca5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Buu0107 ; Divjak, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Buu0107 ; Divjak, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Buu0107 ; Divjak, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bu? & Divjak, 2016). In the development of devices that make music, the examples of the development of devices that make music were used that are designed only for research in information sciences, such as for example, the development of a measuring instrument for evaluating the performance of e-Portfolio.
It is generally admitted to that educational change benefits from a supportive surrounding conditions. Cultural influences are a key issue when thinking about invention of new things and change processes. Organizational culture is a key factor that influences instructional inventions of new things that the success of any something big and important that changes people’s thinking or lives effort may well depend on the extent to which organizational culture issues can be talked toADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1741143213499253”, “ISBN” : “17411432 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “17411432”, “PMID” : “93661140”, “abstract” : “This study examines teachersu2019 and studentsu2019 perceptions of the organizational culture of their universities and their views about and reactions to instructional innovations with regard to student-centred learning, collaborative learning and use of innovative educational technologies. Six Chinese universities were involved and in total 1051 students and teachers participated in a survey study. The results show that features of organizational culture affect studentsu2019 and teachersu2019 perceived need for innovation, their views about innovative approaches to instruction, responsiveness to instructional innovations and the perceived implementation level of educational innovations. In addition, differences among teachers and students and among the institutions were examined and discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhu”, “given” : “Chang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Engels”, “given” : “Nadine”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Management Administration and Leadership”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “136-158”, “title” : “Organizational culture and instructional innovations in higher education: Perceptions and reactions of teachers and students”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=638ab1d9-06ab-4a46-bfbf-d58f519dc1b7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zhu ; Engels, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zhu ; Engels, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zhu ; Engels, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zhu & Engels, 2014). Previous research has examined the influence of organizational culture on organizational inventions of new things. Studies point to new things is mostly likely to happen in organizations that have integrative structures draw attention to many different kinds of people or things, and team effort and teamwork. Yet the findings of previous research are mixed with little believable information that proves something related to the role of specific organizational culture features in adopting instructional invention of new things in college.

Students who come to a related to school and learning library meet with a variety of spaces that influence their learning and behavior. Library has two types of spaces which is shared and social. Shared spaces are places where students are involved in single, hardworking with schoolwork, and thoughtful study surrounded by other students. Students work at group and noisy work with other students in social spaces. Idea of library spaces for different types for different student needs and supports the idea which is that students need separate spaces for the types of learning and behavior connected with ability to create interesting new things and invention of new things ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5860/crl.78.1.35”, “ISSN” : “0010-0870”, “abstract” : “Our research examined the degree to which behaviors and learning associated with creativity and innovation were supported in five academic library spaces and three other spaces at a mid-sized university. Based on survey data from 226 students, we apply a number of statistical techniques to measure student perceptions of the types of learning and behavior associated with the selected spaces. We found that the on-campus makerspace located outside the library encouraged the most innovative behaviors and exploration of new ideas. Within the library, collaboration rooms were the best spaces for encouraging creativity. There is an opportunity for the academic library to be re-conceptualized as a place to foster creativity and innovation in students. We believe that academic libraries should continue to offer a variety of spaces for students, including quiet spaces for reflection, noisy spaces for collaboration and networking, and makerspaces for experimentation.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bieraugel”, “given” : “Mark”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Neill”, “given” : “Stern”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “College ; Research Libraries”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “35-52”, “title” : “Ascending Bloomu2019s Pyramid: Fostering Student Creativity and Innovation in Academic Library Spaces”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “78” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c3ec560-4bda-42e1-9212-47ad31c49eda” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bieraugel ; Neill, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bieraugel ; Neill, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bieraugel ; Neill, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bieraugel & Neill, 2017). Ideas of library space when designing learning spaces in a library is extremely important to think about what types of behavior the design will bring out. Library design, as seen through the lens of the science of nerves and the brain, is interesting and suggests/says that library space is just like productive research surrounding conditions in helping ability to create interesting new things and invention of new things. Bennett notes that Google, Twitter, Facebook, and other companies also aim to create productive research surrounding conditions within settings to help grow invention of new things and critical thinking be it in the lobby, or a quiet corner.

Environmental education can help increase problem-solving skills, very important thinking and action-oriented in relation to central and practical problems that are combined in natureADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/13504622.2013.775220”, “ISBN” : “1350-4622”, “ISSN” : “14695871”, “abstract” : “United Nations of Education Scientific and Cultural Organisationu2019s (UNESCOu2019s) founding statements about environmental education (EE) in the 1970s positioned it as a multidisciplinary field of inquiry. When enacted as such, it challenges traditional ways of organising secondary school education by academic subject areas. Equally, according to UNESCO, EE requires various forms of integrated and project-based teaching and learning approaches. These can involve hands-on experimentation alongside the retrieval and critical analysis of information from diverse sources and perspectives, and with different qualities and statuses. Multidisciplinary and knowledge engagement challenges are key considerations for an EE curriculum designed to harness information and communication technologies (ICT) to support and enhance student learning, which also challenge traditional instructional priorities that for example are largely based on textbooks. This review summarises research that has sought to integrate ICT and digital tools in EE. A key finding is that while there is a rich variety of such tools and applications available, there is far less research on their fit with and implications for student learning. The review calls for further studies that will provide models of productive forms of teaching and learning that harness ICT resources, particularly in developing the goals and methodologies of EE in the twenty-first century.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fauville”, “given” : “G.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lantz-Andersson”, “given” : “A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Su00e4lju00f6”, “given” : “R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Environmental Education Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “248-283”, “title” : “ICT tools in environmental education: Reviewing two newcomers to schools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=df679349-5b7b-40c7-979d-a5678ba22e70” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fauville, Lantz-Andersson, ; Su00e4lju00f6, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fauville, Lantz-Andersson, ; Su00e4lju00f6, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fauville, Lantz-Andersson, ; Su00e4lju00f6, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fauville, Lantz-Andersson, & Säljö, 2014). Co-operative processes of question or investigation into and action on real related to surrounding conditions or the health of the Earth issues where students should be put in the position of active thinkers prepared to act in response to issues in partnership with fellow students. Such learning also involves understanding how to approach, plan and analyze complex issues and where to turn for clearly connected or related knowledge, and not only the reproduction of what is already known although in different difference fields of study. In such settings, student-active and problem-based instructional approaches have been argued as providing a good big picture in which to develop knowledge. So, the science of teaching and way of thinking behind environmental education can be thought of as challenging traditional approaches to schooling, which focus on learning of true knowledge presented in the classroom by the teacher in order to solve problems with an already existing, single and correct solution. Traditional education is also highly broken-up in terms of fields of study and is based on abstract problems, with students put in the rather allowing something to happen without reacting or trying to stop it position of simply reproducing information and standard procedures.

2.5 The relationship between Innovative Student (DV) and Creativity (IV)
Students and teachers often identify rote learning and not flexible rule-obsessed thinking as features extremely important for success in science. A little over a quarter of first or most important and between elementary and high school where the schools have effective science programs, and by year 8 when students are 11-13 years old of few students. Science learning was thought of student experienced knowledge-based programs rather than interactive, investigative approaches that provide opportunity for student ability to create interesting new things and imaginationADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Courtney”, “given” : “Matthew”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Initial teacher education students u2019 conceptions of creativity in technology and science education : A large-scale New Zealand study”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=794b7af2-187b-4239-9fd8-b04a5b7f6324” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Courtney, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Courtney, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Courtney, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Courtney, 2017). To understand the lack of showing the ability to create interesting new things of opportunity in the classroom, it is important first to define creativity in the big picture of learning, and then to explore how teachers might think to believe the ability to be used for something of ability to create interesting new things across different fields of study. Creativity is the use of knowledge and skills in new ways to accomplish or gain with effort a valued goal. Besides being very important to education and learning, creativity is an important part of everyday life and twenty-first century living. So, creativity is of obvious importance to practical school courses areas such as technology.
In line with the opinions of creativity educated people, especially those from the field of organizational creativity, the ability to create interesting new things and invention of new things are closely related but not identical ideas and, therefore, need to be distinguished for research and management purposesADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Werner”, “given” : “Christian H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tang”, “given” : “Min”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Essentials of the management of creativity and innovation in education , business , and Chapter 18 Essentials of the Management of Creativity and Innovation in Education , Business , and Engineering”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e5766c2e-e71d-4b9d-b045-ea4458370d74” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Werner ; Tang, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Werner ; Tang, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Werner ; Tang, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Werner & Tang, 2017). Creating the existing books about the defining features of creativity and invention of new things, the balance between pretty and practicality appropriateness at four opinions that can be used to see these two ideas which is the individual way of seeing things and more weight on idea generation or idea application, the social way of seeing things and the desire to do something sensible view. There are always restrictions on where the world is not only the possibility of ability to create interesting new things, but creativity as seen in functional products. The warning here hints that though the link between creativity and invention of new things seems obvious and logical, creativity cannot always be changed into invention of new things due to the existence of different restrictions. So, creativity is one of the factors that lead to an innovative student because they can see and give unique ideas by their creative thinking.

According to the ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The purpose of this study is to explore the strength of relationships between 7th grade studentsu2019 Scientific Process Skills (SPS), Nature of Science (NOS) beliefs, and Scientific Creativity (SC) through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). For this purpose, data were collected from 332 students of two public middle school students in Turkey. SPS, Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS) and SC instruments were used as data collection tools. Zero-order and partial correlation analysis, MANCOVA and ANCOVA analyses were conducted on the data. Two models were hypothesized. In Hypothesized Model 1, it was considered that SPS both directly and indirectly through subscales of NSKS predicted SC; whereas, in Hypothesized Model 2, it was considered that the SPS directly predicted SC. SEM analysis was conducted to test the two hypothesized models. Sobelu2019s z tests were conducted to examine the significance of the mediator roles of NSKSu2019s subscales in the relationships between SPS and SC. Results indicated that the relationships between SPS and SC were partially mediated by only the Testable subscale of NSKS; likewise, this relationship was partially mediated by second- order factor NSKS. Finally, we found that the Creative subscale of NSKS has a moderator role on predictive power of the SPS on the SC. Classroom implications obtained from the results are discussed in the paper”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ozdemir”, “given” : “Gokhan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dikici”, “given” : “Ayhan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “52-68”, “title” : “Relationships between Scientific Process Skills and Scientific Creativity: Mediating Role of Nature of Science Knowledge”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f5f2eefb-0519-4ab4-95e5-8364a5dcb921” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ozdemir ; Dikici, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Ozdemir and Dikici (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ozdemir ; Dikici, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ozdemir ; Dikici, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ozdemir and Dikici (2017) article state that creativity is usually created as a skill to produce original and good solutions for new situations and to create original ideas. In the world of science, original ideas give to change and improve our views about the natural world. Therefore, scientific creativity can be explained as a skill to develop and raise our understanding of nature. This creation of scientific creativity is the vital property of scientific knowledge because of its developmental nature. That’s why creativity may lead to factors to an innovative student. Even a typical related to school and learning semester without any special instruction can improve students’ scientific creativity. Helping the development of ability to create interesting new things is about teacher behaviors, which includes maintaining an open point of view towards showing the ability to create interesting new things ideas or behaviors, showing a humanistic student control, being flexible in thinking and behaving, and valuing independent thinking. Teachers may encourage students’ creativity or cause it to atrophy. Research wants everyone to understand that the relationship between teacher and student is important for students to develop their creativity that will lead to be an innovative student.

The graph above shows that teachers and parents are agreed creativity needs to be soaked in more deeply into the school courses.

Sources: https://campustechnology.com/articles/2013/06/24/report-creativity-hindered-in-the-classroom-by-testing-mandates-lack-of-resources.aspx?=CTNUCreativity can be describe as a focus on creating new or original idea, looking into the existing problems in a different point of view in order to provide useful and practical solution to the attached establishment. In the education setting, teachers being productive by putting into use creative idea in preparing teaching materials. More than that, showing the ability to create interesting new things instructor usually will apply any existing knowledge with new approach that can feed and care for thinking-related ability. Person’s creativity can be taught and can be improved. Because of this, in this big picture the way teachers bring across their teaching methods can be taught or trained to be more creative. Lecturers basically demanded to be creative in their teaching besides applying their knowledge and experience so from that student can be more motivated to be an innovative student.

2.6 The relationship between Innovative Student (DV) and Ability to Think Abstractly (IV)
3.0 Methodology
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Discussion
6.0 References