Full Name Nomfundo Persevearance Mngadi
Student Number 61930571
Module Code HES4809
Assignment Number 02
Email address [email protected]
Contact Numbers 076 720 8638/033 341 1564
Cumulative environmental impacts are impacts emanating from a consolidation of the previous, current and forthcoming events (Raiter et.al, 2014). An impact may be worsened due to an interaction of impacts with one another (DEAT, 2004) like a snowball effect. For example, draught results in cumulative impacts when different pollutant sources (like untreated sludge, sewer line leakages, chemicals seepages, runoff from poor managed landfill sites, etc.) entering a stream affected by drought and therefore worsening poor water quality and aquatic biodiversity wellbeing. However, multiple impacts are various impacts concurrently occurring (Interactio et al., 2007). Examples of multiple impacts that may result from drought is increment of eutrophication, aquatic weeds encroachment, increased water treatability risk as there will be minimal dilution effect, and decreased economic growth as agricultural activities will be affected as well.
DEAT. (2004). Cumulative Effects Assessment, Integrated Environmental Management, Information Series 7, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), Pretoria
Interactio, C. on E.-A., Council, N.R., Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate and Division on Earth and Life Studies (2007) Understanding multiple environmental stresses: Report of a workshop. United States: National Academies Press
Raiter, K, G., Possingham, H., P., Prober, S., M. and Hobbs, R., J. (2014). Under the Radar: Mitigating Enigmatic ecological Impacts, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, November 2014, Vol. 29, No. 1, Pp635-644
A multidisciplinary approach is when numerous theoretical ideologies are applied for a resolution to a certain environmental issue (Van Dijk, 2000). Therefore, different professions (such as community, contractors, stakeholders, architects, procurers and engineers) may work together and come up with a proper plan that will assist in mitigating and managing environmental issues as they are complex and there is a great potential associated cumulative and multiple impacts. These different professions could be inclusive of information sharing, integrated action and incorporation of resources (Jimenez, 2014) during environmental problems such as drought where dams and water treatment infrastructures are to be built, war on leaks schemes be implemented and water demand management projects (Karmaoui et al., 2014).
Jimenez, RJ. (2014). A comprehensive framework for successful Nuclear New Build delivery, London
Karmaoui A, Messouli M, Ifaadassan I, Khebiza MY. (2014). A Multidisciplinary Approach to Assess the Environmental Vulnerability at Local Scale in Context of Climate Change (Pilot Study in Upper Draa Valley, South Morocco). https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-assess-the-environmental-vulnerability-at-local-scale-in-context-of-climate-change-pilot-study-in-upper-draa-valley-south-morocco-2229-8711.1000167.php?aid=38313 Accessed 28 July 2018
Van Dijk, T. (2000). Ideology: A multidisciplinary Approach. SAGE Publication Inc, London
Food safety is defined as prevention of food contamination and food-borne illnesses through conditions and practices that preserve the food quality. It includes scientific discipline unfolding handling, preparation and storage in ways that prevents food-borne diseases (FMFA, 2016). There are cases where reports are made on illnesses resulting from a consumption of a common food and these are called food-borne disease outbreaks (WHO, 2004). South Africa has recently experienced such on a disease called listeriosis. Listeriosis is an infection caused by species of pathogenic bacteria called listeria monocytogenes. People are affected by this infection as it emanates from food poisoning through various exposure pathways. It is therefore, necessary that a Community Liaison Officer (CLO) is appointed after such an outbreak. A CLO is expected to communicate safety precautions methods with the community within the region they are appointed to work on and be able to liaise with all the society levels. They also consider local community demographics and needs. Hereunder is the report on how I, as a CLO, would go about in communicating the outbreak to the people of KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and Western Cape provinces respectively, adopting the WHO outbreak communication principles as outlined in World Health Organization Outbreak Communication Planning Guide (WHO, 2008).
This region of the country mostly constitutes of the rural traditional areas. Therefore, as a CLO, I would firstly communicate the listeriosis outbreak through newspapers. Most people in this region still strongly believe in the usage of hard copies and face-to-face communication methods. I would call out for urgent community meetings and imbizos where by the community will be informed about the outbreak and taught on prevention measures and how can they be helped once they see listeriosis related symptoms. I would also do presentations in schools and put up posters with relevant information in a language they would all understand. Emphasis on safety food practices may be presented through practical examples or may even be recorded for radio and television viewings. Some of the people from this province have Shembe religious views of which they do not believe in being active on a Saturday and that includes not cooking amongst other activities, therefore it will be imperative that they minimise being exposed to uncooked food as they may be infected by doing this. The clinics around the area will have to be informed and be given proper resources should there be an emergency.
In this province, the life is mostly fast and people opt to the quickest way possible. Therefore, as a CLO, I would use mostly social media for people to read the news about the outbreak on the go. There are a number of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and broadcast messages on WhatsApp and the news on the outbreak may be communicated through the trending hashtags. The news may also be made trending on the online news websites and apps. I would also coordinate the training for people within the area so that they may be equipped with knowledge on how the bacteria on their food may be suppressed. Transparency is important for people to have the knowledge on the kinds of food that is likely to have these listeria monocytogenes bacteria, and these are expected to be asked on public meetings sessions. The manufacturers who produce the type of food that is susceptible to the bacteria are to be informed and have their food tested before it goes to the consumers and if they have already sent infected food to consumers that will have to be recalled. Street vendors are also to be communicated to so that they ensure that their suppliers test their produce before selling to them. Therefore it is imperative that I, as a CLO, build trust with all the members of the community in their respective social, political and economic levels.
This province has various tourists’ attractions, and therefore, as a CLO, I would conduct small workshops at the airport and coordinate training for tourists’ guides to encourage visitors on food safety precautions. The behavioural change towards safe handling and storing of food would be strongly encouraged to all the residents. The Western Cape Province has some head offices of governmental departments, so as a CLO, I would also engage with the Department of Communications and Department of Health so that these departments may assist in ensuring that message gets through to people at a national level. Different medical assistances for different economic classes such as clinics (low-income groups) and private hospitals are to be communicated to in terms of the listeriosis infection mitigation measures. These measures would be communicated to both public and private schools using different teaching methods to make students equipped
As much as communication methods may differ within provinces, there are common tools that a CLO may use to ensure that the message about the outbreak gets to each and everyone within the country and the emergency communication strategy has to always be in place to ensure that during emergencies, communication is still constructively conducted. All forms of media may also be used on all provinces to ensure that the message gets to people within a short span of time; however, some older generations may still have preferences on visualised hard-copy materials such as pamphlets and newspaper adverts. It is imperative that the CLO accommodates all languages of South Africa in any form of communication conducted.
Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (FMFA). (2016). Understanding food safety. Germany
http://www.who.int/csr/don/28-march-2018-listeriosis-southafrica/en/World Health Organization, (WHO). (2004). Outbreak Communication. Best practices for communicating with the public during an outbreak. Singapore
World Health Organization, (WHO). (2008). World Health Organization Outbreak Communication Planning Guide
Definition A management tool whereby an identification and assessment of potential constructive and harmful environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts of a certain project is undertaken. Is a holistic procedure that focuses on eradicating complex environmental issues and therefore not limited to a specific project.
Purpose To assess proposed activities so that the adverse impacts may be mitigated and beneficial impacts be enhanced for planning purposes and proper decision making. To maintain or mitigate any negative impacts and to strengthen positive aspects of development proposals.
Tools -Audits and inspections
-Stakeholder engagements -EIAs
-Environmental Management Systems
Advantages -Ameliorated projects’ outcomes
-It offers increased transparency and accountability through stakeholders engagements -Promotes overall sustainable development.
Limitations -It is project and site specific and finds difficulty in consideration of cumulative effects
-Outcomes are dependent on the appointed EAP’s capabilities.
-Political injustices may affect the project. -The implementation of IEM tools is to be ameliorated by addition of addressing trending global issues emanating from respective developments.
-It has identified area of improvement in terms of integration between the IEM tools such as (EIA, SEA, etc.) throughout the project life cycle.
Table 1: Information extracted from the following sources: (Buhrs, 1995; DEAT, 2004; and Weaver, 2003).
Buhrs, T. (1995). Integrated Environmental Management: Towards A Framework for Application (pp. 1-19). Lincoln University. Christchurch, New Zealand
DEAT. (2004). Integrated Environmental Management Information Series: Overview of Integrated Environmental Management. Pg. 10-14
http://www.enviropaedia.com/topic/default.php?topic_id=141 Accessed 27 July 2018
Weaver A. (2003). EIA and Sustainable Development: Key concepts and tools. Environmental Impact Assessment in southern Africa. Windhoek: Southern African Association for Environmental Assessment. Pg. 3-10
Rhino poaching may be defined as an illegal hunting or stealing of rhinos that are predated for their horns as they are sold to the black market and are believed to be a an important component of Chinese and other traditional medicines (Ferreira; Pfab and Knight, 2014). Rhinos are already noted as one of the endangered species in the world and South Africa is stated to be home to about 70 percent of the remaining. There is however a demand in the black market as it is believed that the horns cure diseases such as cancer, and there is currently an increase in numbers of people suffering from it. With the current economic state of the country, people are taking any chances they come across to make money and this compromises these species (De Beer, 2016). South African has developed the Biodiversity Management Plan to ensure the survival and sustainable growth of the country’s rhinos and the inclusion of the South African Rhino Management Group in the execution of the plan.
South African rhinos are not sustainably managed as Figure 1 below the shows numbers of poached rhinos which have been skyrocketing from the year 2000 and it is the evident that more is still to be done to manage this issue. Although there is a slight decrease noted from 2014; however, more is still to be done to radically reduce these numbers and this may include the proper implementation of the integrated strategic management of rhinoceros within the country but will also require global interaction and cooperation. The country has been also enforcing legislations hoping to minimize threats to these species and some policies encourage “Green Violence” which cannot be stated sustainable as it would leave a lesson of solving issues with violence to the upcoming generations. It would therefore be advantageous to the country that people are taught on long term benefits that rhinos provide to the country such as tourism benefits (Child, 2012).
Figure 1: A statistical representation of South African rhino poaching. https://www.savetherhino.org/rhino-info/poaching-stats/ Accessed 2 August 2018
Ferreira, S; Pfab, M; and Knight, M. (2014). South African Journal of Science. Management strategies to curb rhino poaching: Alternative options using a cost-benefit approach http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext;pid=S0038-23532014000300016 Accessed 1 August 2018
https://www.savetherhino.org/rhino-info/poaching-stats/ Accessed 2 August 2018
Child, B. (2012). The sustainable use approach could save South Africa’s rhinos. South Africa
De Beer, W. (2016). The viability of legalising international trade in rhino horn and the possible effect on rhino poaching in South Africa.Question 6
An environmental activist can be described as someone who works towards ensuring that the environment is protected from any form of destruction and pollution (Matsuba and Pratt, 2013). They may or may not be remunerated for the work they do as they do it mostly out of interest, and therefore some of them have not undergone any form of training. However, some environmental activists have undergone environmental management training. Examples of environmental activists in the Southern Africa include Desmond D’Sa who is the coordinator of the environmental justice organisation called South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA) (Vissers, 2010). On the other hand, the environmental lawyers are focused on the legal cases concerning the environmental issues (Bodansky, 2006). They may be against or in defence of organisations that have activities that are of harm to the environment or environmental legislations non-conformities. Justification of environmental legislations non-conformities is something the environmental activists would not do. Environmental lawyers obtain training as lawyers so that they may be able to practice law. Examples of environmental lawyers in the Southern Africa include Gunstons’ attorneys firm from the city of Cape Town which also deals with environmental cases (Centre for Environmental Rights, 2015).
Bodansky, D., (2006). Does one need to be an international lawyer to be an international environmental lawyer?. In Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting (Vol. 100, pp. 303-307). Cambridge University Press
Centre for Environmental Rights. (2015). Promoting transparency, accountability and environmental compliance: Holding company directors accountable for environmental crimes http://www.raith.org.za/docs/projects/7_CER-Director-Criminal-Liability.pdf Accessed 2 August 2018
Matsuba, M. K., & Pratt, M. W. (2013). The making of an environmental activist: A developmentalpsychological perspective. In M. K. Matsuba, P. E. King, & K. C. Bronk (Eds.), Exemplar methods and research: Strategies for investigation. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 142, 59–74
Vissers, A. (2010). Perceptions of Air Pollution and Its Impact on Human Health in the South Durban Basin: A Community Perspective
Stakeholder engagement: lessons that IEM practitioners can learn from the DuPont case
Stakeholders in relation to stakeholder engagement
Stakeholders are defined as persons, groups or institutes that are affected or may affect the activity of an organisation or business and they include employees, customers, suppliers, neighbours/ community and community colleges (Koppich, 2010). Each of these groups of people has an interest in the organisation but with its own priorities and perspectives that they may want to contribute in support of the company’s IEM implementation. Stakeholders can be classified into two categories namely, internal stakeholders (employees, customers, suppliers, investors and insurers) and external stakeholders (neighbours, community organisations, environmental groups, larger companies, media, public and local government) (Van Niekek ; Joubert, 2011). Stakeholder engagement, thus refers to a process by which organisations communicates and interacts with their various stakeholders in order to achieve desirable outcomes and ameliorate accountability (Koppich, 2010). Hereunder is the reflection on what an IEM practitioner can learn on the DuPont article.
DuPont article background
The article is about a lawyer’s, Bilott, work that was aimed at holding DuPont, a chemical company, accountable for the release of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the environment around the area of Parkersburg, W.Va. PFOA is a man-made chemical that has a potential in causing health implications as it stays in the environment for longer periods. The release of this chemical had a major impact to the biodiversity of the area and its residents as the pollution was deemed to be causing health implications. 70 000 people in Washington Districts were directly drinking water polluted by the release of this chemical. The DuPont case has been going on for the past 16 years, during which stage DuPont settled the class-action suit, and Billot is still prosecuting DuPont for a numerous personal-injury cases filed by members of the class (The New York Times Company, 2016).
How did the case impact Ballot’s life?
The case had a heavy personal cost on Rob Bilott in that he spent too much of his strength, thoughts and time trying to analyse the information provided to him by DuPont and running cases, that he spent very little time with his family. It even went as far as him being much focused that he ended up not attending to any of his clients, meaning he was stirring on financial strain, due to the finances he has used from the company. During the long wait for the scientist laboratory result analyses, the case ended affecting his health resulting to stress, suffering sudden attacks, blurry visions and difficulty of movement of one side of his body and he is on permanent medication (The New York Times Company, 2016).
Root cause of the DuPont case
The core problem were the professionals working for DuPont, working in the area, the lawyers, the veterinarians etc. who either helped the company cover it up or refused to get involved in the problem. The most obvious evidence to this is due to the fact that before Tennant could seek assistance to Bilott, had previously consulted different sectors which he perceived would assist him however, these people were obviously either influenced by DuPont or the companies were co-owned by DuPont and no one seemed to come out independently and assist (The New York Times Company, 2016). Due to the fact that DuPont was in the business industry, it made it difficult for the people in the area to come out and support Bilott and Tennant. They did not want to involve themselves because they knew, that DuPont was a threat, had many connections and some of their family members were working for his company, they ran the risk of losing their source of income and what they had worked for (The New York Times Company, 2016). The in-house studies conducted by DuPont and E.P. A., with three veterinarians and the other three veterinaries chosen by E.P.A concluded their findings that DuPont was not liable for the killing of Tennant cattle and cows, instead the it was due to improper housekeeping issues and poor farming of animals by the Tennant. For such investigations conclusion to be issued out, it is a clear indication that the professional workers that worked in the area were easily manipulated and had no dignity in revealing the truth about the true findings at Dry Run Landfill (The New York Times Company, 2016).
How would IEM approach have been utilised to avoid the case
The IEM approach looks at cumulative impacts over a long period of time and this would have been utilised before DuPont started operating through the usage of its multiple tools. According to DEAT (2004:2) the “IEM approach has the potential to play a major role in the importance of guiding society along a pathway to sustainability” and therefore the use of IEM is better suitable for the substance like PFOA as it assess the product from the source, to the recycling, re-use and disposal of the product. IEM ensures that all stakeholders participate in the decision making, its tools and involves the specialists studies conducted, and therefore, transparency is important (Morrissey, 2015). This would have assisted in dealing with such a complex, toxic substance because it would have meant that there won’t be any legislation or possible environmental or human health concern not outlined for the implementation of the mitigation measures.
The EIM approach allows the various stakeholders to outline their roles and concerns in every stage of the project life cycle which would have made it easier to identify concerns with regards to PFOA impacts on the environment through risk assessment. Alternatives must be provided on the projects and the applicant would have to explain reasons behind the project using the alternative, especially in cases where the process utilises objects that have an impact on the environment. IEM emphasises the importance protecting the environment and minimise activities that may compromises the disadvantaged (DEAT 2014), this would have assist in dealing with the likes of DuPont.
DEAT. (2004). Overview of Integrated Environmental Management, Integrated Environmental Management, Information Series 0, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), Pretoria
Koppich, J. (2010). Meeting the Challenges of Stakeholder Engagement and Communication: Lessons From Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED533049.pdf Accessed 30 July 2018
Morrissey, B. (2015). Engineers Journal (Engineers Ireland): The importance of stakeholder and community engagement in engineering projects
The New York Times Company. (2016). The Lawyer who became DuPont’s Worst Nightmare http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/10/magazine/the-lawyer-who-became-duponts-worst-nightmare.html?_r=0 Accessed 23 July 2018
Van Niekerk, H.J., ; Joubert, E.D. (2011). Integrated Environmental Management Systems and Auditing: Implementation Guide. Department of Environmental Sciences, UNISA. Pretoria