In this assignment I will be talking about-
Outlining the terrorism methods used by key terrorist organisations
Discussing the measures used by UK public services to counter both national and international terrorist
Analysing the measures used to combat national and international terrorist
Evaluating the impact of war, conflict and terrorism on one UK public service
What is terrorism?
Terrorism is the precise use of violence and other kinds of tactics in order to create a sense of fear towards the people of a country usually to show power and to bring a political objective.
List of terrorist groups-
Real Irish Republican Army
Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
There main aim is to create an independant Basque nation in the north west of Spain and southern France. The political aims and methods are very similar to the Provisional IRA in Northern Ireland as they both in a way were killing for a independance as the IRA wanted a united Ireland and the ETA wanted to break up Spain, but what they had in common was they both used violence to gain political ends but both both organisations did more harm than good.
Their prefered terrorist methods included bombings, assassinations and kidnapping. An example of a bombing attack was 2009 in Majorca a car bomb exploded and killed 2 police officers.
Real Irish Republican Army-
Traditional IRA activities have included bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, punishment beatings, extortion, smuggling, and robberies.Real Irish Republican Army. The Real Irish Republican Army is another group of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) that continues to use violence to express its opposition to the terms of the peace laid out in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement that finally brought an end to the struggles between the unionists and nationalists
Hamas is the largest of several Palestinian militant Islamist groups. In 2005 it became the first Islamist group in the Arab world to win election through the ballot box. Hamas as a whole, or in some cases its military wing, is designated a terrorist group by Israel, the US, EU, and UK. Hamas and Israel became embroiled in the most intensive fighting for months.The fighting ended after 50 days with a ceasefire. At least 2,189 Palestinians were killed, including more than 1,486 civilians, according to the UN. On the Israeli side, 67 soldiers were killed along with the six civilians.
Al-Qaeda was created and led by Osama bin laden and was originally based in Afghanistan but in 1991 it moved to Sudan only to be moved again in 1996 back to Afghanistan. It has several thousand members and was funded by bin Laden who has a 300 million dollar fortune. Today the organisation runs many businesses and receives donations across the world.
The primary aims of Al-Qaeda are to takeover governments in islamic countries and ban Westerners. There other aims are to bomb embassies and attack the US military and attack innocent civilians to create a sense of fear for example the September 911 bombings which they claimed responsibility for.
The US is a particular target as it provides support to some Islamic countries that are an enemy and threat to the terrorist group ie Egypt and Saudi Arabia and also the US got involved in some Islamic affairs the most advanced being the Gulf War in 1991.
The favoured terrorist methods they like to use are suicide bombing, roadside bombing, car bombing and hijackings all these are against civilian and military targets in most cases the US military. The organization’s attacks are strategically well planned and some cases can take years especially big operations. One of Al Qaeda’s most distinguishing and effective tactic is the multiple suicide bombing
Methods used by terrorists-
Biological and chemical threats
Bombings are one of the most popular methods of terrorist organisations, they have many advantages but also a few disadvantages. Firstly they can be placed in a specific location and be detonated from miles away meaning the bomber will be uninjured. The disadvantage however is as people become more aware on how to spot explosives the more likely the bombs are to be detected also the bombs may not explode correctly or not at all like the case where an An Iraqi asylum-seeker tried to bomb underground train heading to central London on Sept. 15. An example of this method was the most devastating attack the Real IRA carried out: in 1998 in the town of Omagh in Northern Ireland a bomb was detonated resulting in the death of 29 people. The cause of the attack was an attempt to crash the peace process in Northern Ireland by provoking retaliation it created grief, anger and outrage.
Assassinations are used as a method to threaten a certain group or someone who the terrorist group deem responsible for going against the organisation. The objective when famous/important people get assassinated is to creates publicity so there terrorist organisation is known which increases fear among the population of civilians.
An example of a recent assassination attempt was malala Yousafzai. She was a Pakistani school girl who was targeted by the Taliban for speaking out about Women’s rights to education. Before the attempt she wasn’t known worldwide but she was known in her local area of Pakistan and gained lots of supporters for the speeches she made. As it was a failed attempt by the Taliban she is now known all over the world as a celebrity for women rights for Pakistan.
Suicide attacks usually involve the individual the terrorist to die during the attack. This is usually using a human strapped with explosives and to detonate it in a crowded area like a theatre or concert where it is more likely for more people to be injured or killed. As the attacker is going to be taking their own life they do not need to get away so a greater number of victims can be targeted. In my opinion he worst ever suicide attack in history which Al-Qaeda were responsible for was the 911 attacks on the twin towers in New York. In September 11 2001 19 terrorists hijacked four planes and killing the pilots and took control of the aircraft and sacrificed their lives in order to use the planes as missiles to injure many innocent civilians.
Biological and chemical threats-
Chemical terrorism is using a toxic chemical and release it into the atmosphere or water supply where it will effect lots of people as we all have to drink and breath. Chemicals are a lot more easier to carry than explosives or other critical weapons and are much safer to carry resulting them being transported from country to country.
Biological terrorism is microbes and viruses are spread into populations full of civilians in order to decrease moral and decrease the population. They can go unnoticed for days biological terrorism can not be used to pinpoint attacks making it almost impossible to track down the terrorist. A good example was the US 2001 attack where the terrorists mailed letters containing spores to several news media offices including Judith Miller at The New York Times and to Democratic Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy, killing 5 people and infecting 17 others.
Hijacking usually involves a terrorist group taking over a civilian aircraft and the pilot is made to fly where the terrorists say. Also there have been cases where the terrorists kill the pilot and flight crew and take full control of the plane. The common reason why terrorists will hijack a plane is to use the passengers as hostages in order to get the demands they want off the government. A case study is where terrorists from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PELP) took control of 4 aircrafts and flew them to Jordan where all the passengers were all held hostage and demanded that PFLP members were released from prison.
Kidnapping is common among many Islamist groups especially in conflict zones around the world they usually kidnap Western nationals for financial and propaganda gain. A case study late into 2014, The Islamic State of Iraq released videos claiming to show the murders of UK nationals David Haines and Alan Henning. The objective of these videos were to spread fear and they to show their strength over the West. Not just in Syria and Iraq but the threat of being kidnapped persists in Yemen and parts of West, North and East Africa where Islamist groups are still active.
Terrorist hostage taking has become a worldwide concern in the recent years. Since the mid 1990s, hostage taking and has taken a dramatic turn and has increased as a preferred tactic of political terrorists. According to police statistics (mi5, nearly 2,000 people worldwide have been taken hostage during the last 10 years. The actual number of cases is predicted to be several times higher. Hostage taking is a prefered tactic as it can occur anytime and anywhere. No community or country is immune to this growing aspect.
Evaluate the impact of war, conflict and terror on the british army-
Soon after the 9/11 terror attacks in the US in 2001 the British forces became involved in Afghanistan. Not many of us would have expected the conflict to last this long. During this conflict the reputation of the Armed Forces has unfortunately suffered but in a way, was also been built up by the many years of experience in Afghanistan. The effects that Afghanistan had on the british army was that sometimes around 10,000 troops were deployed at one stage leaving the Army stretched on limited numbers and out of the troops sent over 1,700 have been injured and a further 400 killed. It also cost the UK Government about £9.4bn since 2001 due to this the British Army is scheduled to reduce to 82,000 by 2020. This is a big deal since in 1945 there were 3 million troops. (figures from 2010). Lastly badly injured soldiers are not given the compensation they deserve due to financial costs. A case of this was a soldier called Ben Parkinson where his £1 million compensation was halved after restructuring budgets.
There have been many tragic events due to the strain of the War in an example is the crash of Nimrod XV230, resulting in the death of everyone aboard, focussing the attention on extreme pressure on the defence budget and the reality of just making do with old equipment. Due to previous Wars for example World War 2 there have been lots of cuts in the British Army due to the amount of debt we are in there are many effects it has on the Army firstly the amount of troops the UK is able to has dropped dramatically in the last 20 years, its transport fleet is many years out of date and there is a shortage of the correct armoured vehicles or air transport needed in places like Afghanistan. Politicians and senior military leadership about their decisions they make and what their priorities are.
Gray, D, Lilley, T, & Toms, E 2010, BTEC Level 3 National Public Services Student Book 1, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, United Kingdom. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central. 6 November 2018.