Making Aid Work for basic education: A case analysis of Philippines` perspective
A Thesis Proposal Presented to the
Faculty of International Studies Department
De La Salle University
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the
Master of International Studies
PARRAS, Maria Patricia U.
Submitted to: Dr. Dennis Trinidad
Table of Contents
Chapter I: Introduction
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature
Forms of Development Assistance
Aid for Capacity Development
Development Assistance to Education Sector
A. Challenges and Issues
CHAPTER III. Methodology
Locale of the Study
Population and Sampling
Data Gathering Procedure
Chapter IV: Results and Discussions
Chapter V: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Strengthen the use of information from feedback mechanism
Improve clarity of communications
This study would not be possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study.
First and foremost, our utmost gratitude to all our interviewees ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..(insert names) …………… who made time for us despite their schedules.
The researcher also owe our deepest gratitude to Professor ___________ for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, immense knowledge and unfailing support as the thesis adviser.
The researcher also wish to thank _____________________________________ for their inputs as mentor and editor.
The researcher would also like to thank ______________________________ for sharing his steadfast encouragement to complete this study.
Last but not the least, the researcher would like to thank her family whose continued guidance and support is irrevocable and the one above all of us, the omnipresent God, for answering prayers and giving strength to plod on despite the hardships and challenges the researcher encountered during thesis writing, thank you so much Dear Lord.
Abstract (insert here)
Keywords: Basic education, poverty reduction, foreign assistance
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Poverty is the deprivation of basic necessities, such as health and education. Moreover, it is the absence of opportunity to achieve a valuable life as it perpetuates inequality. Together, these factors may make the plight of the poor seem more unbearable since they are denied of access to income and assets, use of community property, credit for investments that is meant to increase production, and special education and health services the state should be providing its citizens as part of the social contract. A syndrome of poverty in developing countries is manifested in illiteracy, hunger, high infant mortality, low life expectancy, and malnutrition. In an income perspective, a person is deemed poor if her income is below the poverty line– $1.90, acknowledged internationally thus, basic necessities are hardly met.
Most countries have integrated the income poverty lines to monitor the progress in reducing poverty incidence. UNDP formulated Human Poverty Index (HPI), which indicates the measure of poverty in each country. It seeks to assess three elements of deprivation—longevity, knowledge, and a decent standard of living in various countries. It was developed to complement the Human Development Index (HDI), an indicator of achievement in a country, and was reported in UNDP`s 1997 Human Development Report.
In response to extreme world poverty, the international community has agreed upon a global agenda in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals, which is meant to serve as a development roadmap for both donors and developing countries in addressing efforts to combat poverty from 2000-2015. The standard approach on defining development assistance primarily focuses on its purposes for which aid is allocated. For almost all assessments of aid, it is used as a treatment to poor countries as it generates development.
In the light of foreign aid, a war-torn Europe has been the outcome of WWII thus, Marshall Plan, a bilateral assistance for Europe`s reconstruction, served as a major underpinning of foreign aid`s success and became the rationale of foreign assistance for decades. During the 1950s, official bilateral aid flows dominated the international scene. Where aid was used for political means such as to contain communism. In most areas of the world, living conditions of people fall short of skills lacked the necessary social and physical infrastructure of a modern economy and present conditions of overpopulation, stabilizing business cycles, disposing of surplus commodities. In this light of major world problems and US`s solution, in 1949, President Harry Truman developed a US technical assistance programme, “The Point Four Programme”, with its aim to equip less developed counties such as Africa, Asia, Central, and South America with needed skills and capital which is not new to the US. In 1960s-1970s, USAID was developed–it was responsible for the administration of bilateral assistance, state-led initiatives and activities of development and humanitarian assistance in recipient countries. It was in the 1950s and early 1960s when the causal relationship between education and development was accepted by academics and policymakers. It served as a support to workforce development plan and to it ensures that necessary skills are available. In 1969, Official Development Assistance (ODA) was developed.
In the early seventies, multilateralism of aid became more apparent in the rise of debt crisis. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) are the main multilateral institutions for economic development and debt relief. Programme aid was disbursed by multilateral agencies for structural adjustment. In the 1980s, foreign aid took in the form of budget support conditioned on policy reforms that were framed by IMF and World Bank due to the issues of international debt crisis in several countries. Moreover, education aid included primary and secondary education, humanities and social sciences, professional education, and education research.
The late 1990s, developed countries renewed its approach to development assistance with its aim to reduce poverty. In the 21st, the Millennium Summit 2000, a new global initiative known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was agreed upon by the global community with its objectives of halving extreme poverty, providing universal primary education, reducing child mortality rates, improving maternal health, and stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS in all corners of the world by 2015.
Since 1990s, Education activities drawn from different countries include: access and enrollment, education management and policy, teacher training and workforce development, and school construction. Most aid interventions combine two or more of these elements in addressing educational concerns in a developing country. Indeed, educational aid needs vary from country to country, depending on their level of education, economic, and social development. A global commitment adopted in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, the six Education for All (EFA) goals are expanded early childhood care and education, free and compulsory primary education for all, learning and life skills for young people and adults, increase in adult literacy by 50 percent, gender parity by 2005 and gender equality by 2015, and improved quality of education. More importantly, the EFA is one of the global efforts being made in achieving the 2015 Millennium Development Goals.
Several organizations have found statistical support to the claim that aid in education is key to the development of individuals, households, communities, and societies. Several studies demonstrated that low levels of education and poor skill acquisition hamper growth, which in turn slows down poverty reduction. Poverty is defined in two ways: one is seen as a multi-dimensional concept, and the lack of education is poverty itself. Second is associated to monetary dimension. Therefore, this gives an endearing justification which views education as a central determinant of development.
Similar to UNESCO`s analysis, the result reflects a correlation between education and poverty: better educated people generates more money; better quality education improves local economies, which in turn increases income; and thirdly, education provides other social benefits which helps reduce poverty such as low mortality rates and fertility, and empowerment of women in the workforce. All things considered, education is essential to all parts of development as it provides knowledge and skills—agricultural productivity, poverty reduction, income distribution, health, nutrition etc. as it enhances individuals to become civically engaged, economically productive, and improves well-being.
As foreign aid is heavily focused on development of aid-recipient countries, the area of basic education is an important area of cooperation. First and foremost, basic education is associated to
Poverty in the Philippines remains a problem. At present, the Philippine educational system has several issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the access and quality of education to most of its population. Given that poverty is the crux of inequality, there is a prevailing concern that children from low income households are not afforded with equal educational opportunities. Based from DepEd`s report, socioeconomically disadvantaged students have higher drop-out rates in elementary level as opposed to their economically well-off counterparts. Similarly, the National Statistics office (NSO) reported that one out of every five Filipino children has no access to basic education. Poor households are unable to sustain their children to basic education services. Another issue cited is the declining quality of education in primary and secondary levels.
The country has attracted high levels of multilateral and bilateral assistance which helps fund important development programs. There has been numerous programs and interventions and yet, its efficiency remains inconclusive. Despite the high levels of children entering the school system, there are still pressing concerns regarding those children who are out of school, not completing primary school, as well as the quality of primary and secondary education. As reported by UNESCO from its 2015 EFA country report, Filipino children in the poorest 20 percent receive five years less education than children from wealthy families.
Provided the correlation between education and development, a portion of foreign assistance is assigned on improving basic education with its goal of increasing the living standards of poor Filipinos. In order for literacy to become a norm rather than an exception takes a hefty process, and it cannot be achieved without the increases in the number of children successfully completing basic education. HYPOTHESIS: Education, particularly basic education, has been a top priority of the government in pursuing its development objectives. Therefore, external assistance from UN agencies such as UNESCO and UNICEF, USAID, ADB, World Bank, and Australia-DFAT has allotted a substantial amount of its aid to the country`s education sector. However, the intended outcomes remain weak as based from
B. Statement of the Problem
Although aid from multiple agencies on basic education in the Philippines shown to have had many significant successes, such as high enrollment and low illiteracy, it has also had a less positive outcome at times. Weak governance and inequality have all played a part in limiting basic education, particularly the less privileged. Foreign Assistance should be about development and improving the gaps of its recipient countries. Several studies surmise that external assistance is strongly flawed and the need to ensure that it addresses development needs of the country remains urgent.
The aim of the study is to elucidate the effectiveness of foreign aid on basic education. The most important questions are:
To what extent are aid interventions to basic education sector beneficial/compatible to the development and needs of the education sector?
What aid interventions in basic education, given by external partners, led to the intended outcomes and the extent to which these outcomes have been sustainable?
C.Significance of the Study
Poverty reduction is highly unlikely not unless knowledge, capabilities, and skills are extended to the depressed areas of the society. Numerous aid interventions and programs were provided to the basic education sector and yet, the efficiency of providing foreign assistance remains inconclusive. Hence, this research believes that there is a need to address a comprehensive analysis through which of these foreign- assisted programmes are most-suited to the development and basic education needs of the country. The further need to understand the phenomenon is essential in identifying the best way forward.
Notwithstanding the critical argument above, it remains the case that aid interventions in basic education will continue to play an important role in the Philippine`s development and poverty reduction efforts in the future, considering the challenges posed by the need to alleviate inequality among social groups, improve access and quality education, and improve survival rates. Considering the widespread notion that `education matters’ and the continuous aid intervention efforts in basic education of the country as suggested by researchers, thus, this correlates the fact that basic education has been a success in its prior activities.
For the Philippines to solve development issues considered in this research, it recognizes that education must be a fundamental part of the solution. Challenged by the need to reduce inequality among social groups, increase completion rates, the country will greatly benefit from the output of the aggregated research data. The shortcomings presented in this research would be beneficial within a larger context of aid in basic education and more importantly, its long-term impact to the country`s development objectives.
Pursuing this further, the comprehensive analysis of the role and efficiency of foreign assistance in education in a developing country such as the Philippines is appropriate for a wide range of readers, including policy makers, international organizations, academes, students, advocacy groups, and those interested on how external assistance perform and make an impact to its recipients in the Philippines in achieving its common goals on education in the pursuit of its poverty reduction objectives. Its chief contribution lies in its scholarly attention to the role of education and its interventions in the Philippines to achieve poverty alleviation, which many comparative and international scholars would find appealing in which would contribute to their future efforts.
Provided that International Studies deals with a wide array of knowledge which examines international organizations, its resources, its actors, and its key roles in the international system that creates synergies among various fields, with the help of developing new ideas, further knowledge, and serves as a guiding mechanism to policy-makers, students under International Studies, organizational leaders, practitioners, and scholars. Pursuing this further, under the field of International studies, students usually pursue a career in foreign services, NGOs, and international organizations. Therefore, this research will be beneficial in providing an in-depth analysis on the importance of foreign relations as well as to their future research endeavors.
Given my responsibilities as a student of International Studies, I`m inviting readers and scholars of education policy and program implementation who already acknowledges the present challenges ahead and call for a fundamental shift in this research. However, these issues are prominent for decades, failure to do so means the issues may compound for the coming years. By and large, as donors and recipients` view the importance of education today is that `the distance that remains is less than the road travelled today.
This study is expected to strengthen and deepen the knowledge of development practitioners, students from the field of International Studies, international organization, advocacy networks, and academes in making thorough intervention assessments that will further contribute to the efforts on enhancing disadvantaged people`s lives and mitigating poverty through intervening more on improving education in the Philippines. An integrated approach that comprises with concrete goals and strategies is needed; moreover, a close cooperation between governments, development agencies, and donor community is essential.
D. Scope and Limitation
Particularly examining the Philippines, the study aims to provide a comprehensive investigation on aid interventions for basic education in the Philippines with its objective of speculating the extent of its effectiveness in pursuing its intended outcomes and sustainability. Furthermore, it will only be limited to a specific number of individuals like personal interviews with the involved stakeholders who serve as the frontlines of educational operations and its counterpart local implementing agency will be conducted in order to fully understand on how efforts in basic education contributes to the country`s development objectives. It does not attempt to quantify the contribution of such assistance to development, aware of the pitfalls and difficulty of impact assessment.
The study will rigorously analyze aid interventions in the Philippines` basic education sector and speculate the extent to which these programmes are most beneficial to the sector`s needs. Furthermore, this research needs to address on whether the education sector`s objectives meet the needs of its beneficiaries. Moreover, it is far from the study`s aim to create policy recommendations.
The research will examine review of literatures and a series of personal interviews to key personnel in major development organizations that will be transcribed into a written data. In relation to the participant`s knowledge of the said issue, conducting interviews is an efficient technique of gathering qualitative data. The researcher will be explaining to them the objectives of the study and what questions would be asked. Furthermore, observation will be deployed in the form of the researcher`s personal observation and observed data from practitioners. Since the study will be employing a qualitative research data, the research will only be limited to a specific topic such as pertinent articles and reports on critical issues of aid provisions for basic education.
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
The discussion on research design and method will be utilized to gather the necessary information that would make the analysis efficient, successful, and productive. The research strategy that will be provided in explaining the subject will present guidelines in interpretation and generalization of the outputs. Equally important, for the output to be specific, the chapter would discuss and be cognizant of the given methodological limitations and scope of the study.
In order to satisfy the objectives of the research, a qualitative research will be held. The research at hand is explanatory and descriptive in nature, since it seeks to elucidate the relationship and factors that affect among the variables.
Furthermore, the paper reviews the basic education performance of the Philippines through multiple aid activities, confirms the role of foreign assistance in education as a key factor explaining development in the recipient country, and undertakes an analysis of the importance of education in social capital. At this point, the efficiency of aid will be conducted by the researcher through interviews in consolidating the data as primary source and will rely on the review of related literature from the secondary sources
Locale of the Study
(insert PH map)
Population and Sampling
The data that will be collated, analyzed, interpreted, and generalized in this study will come from primary and secondary sources.
The study aims to use the following methods:
Literature review to analyze the emerging findings from various articles written for aid`s impact on education in the Philippines. This comprises: reports, article reviews, testimonies, documentations, journals, news articles, and accounts from scholars or studies as well as other existing literature. Such given sources may either be printed or consulted online depending on the format.
Key informant interviews
Interviews from international organizations that provides aid interventions to basic education, and local agencies such as DepEd to document and examine the perspective of Philippine experience as a recipient of education aid.
Nearly all volumes of debate regarding aid`s effectiveness recognize the potential for aid to do better, particularly in fostering the needs of its recipients in the education sector. A multitude of evidence points out that sustaining foreign assistance at reasonable levels can be expected to enhance the aid efficiency in a specified sector. Disregarding foreign aid`s existence, or cutting it back, would be a mistake. The researcher aims to study aid`s effectiveness in the basic education level so that issues that raised will be substantially advanced for the coming decades and aid would not be put into waste.
The study will be conducting a descriptive research. Primary, secondary sources, and key informant interviews are to be used as its main data gathering procedures. For the key informant interviews, interview guides are prepared to facilitate the process and to ensure the consistency of the questions.
The analysis of data completed by the researcher will be based on the outcome that will be conducted with the utilization of materials such as surveys and the information that were gathered coming from different sources. (i.e., secondary sources, interview of multiple donor agencies such as UNESCO, ADB, World Bank, Australia-DFAT, and USAID, together with local agencies inputs: DepEd`s Strategic Management strand) The researchers will be using Qualitative design by comparing and contrasting the collated data from these various findings. Furthermore, the data analysis will be presented in a descriptive approach in order for the researcher to summarize the gathered data and to also describe the key features of the research study.
The paper will provide a comprehensive investigation on aid interventions for basic education in the Philippines with its objective of speculating the extent of its effectiveness in pursuing its intended outcomes and sustainability. Furthermore, it will only be limited to a specific number of individuals like personal interviews with the involved stakeholders who serve as the frontlines of educational operations and its counterpart local implementing agency will be conducted in order to fully understand on how efforts in basic education contributes to the country`s development objectives. It does not attempt to quantify the contribution of such assistance to development, aware of the pitfalls and difficulty of impact assessment.
The research needs to address on whether the education sector`s objectives meet the needs of its beneficiaries. Moreover, it is far from the study`s aim to create policy recommendations. Furthermore, it does not attempt to quantify the contribution of such assistance to development, aware of the pitfalls and difficulties of impact assessment. Instead, it will review the flows of education assistance in terms of both quantity and quality, also indicates some plausible directions in relation to the role of education assistance to the Philippines. Since the study will be employing a qualitative research data, the research will only be limited to a specific topic such as pertinent articles and reports on critical issues of aid provisions for basic education
BIBLIOGRAPHY UNESCO. (2018, June 05). Philippine Education for All 2015 Review Report. Retrieved from UNESCO: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002303/230331e.pdf