No. Table of contents Page no.
1. History of Software Engineering 3
Beginning of Software
Waterfall model
2. How SE is reshaping Pakistan software industry 4
Job roles
Salaries comparison by job roles
3. Software effects on economy 5
Profound impacts on our country
Software innovations and jobs
Effects that rippling throughout economy
4. Failure projects in SE 6
List of failed projects
5. PSEB and IBC 7
Major functions of PSEB
6. Software quality attributes of my favorite software 8

1.History of Software Engineering:
The term “Software Engineering” was recommended at conferences organized by NATO in 1968 and 1969 to discuss the Software’s crisis. The Software crisis was the name given to the difficulties encountered in developing large, complex systems in 1960s.
Beginning of Software:
Software separated from the hardware in 1950’s. It occurred as a distinct technology. It became independent product now. Original programmers hired from the ranks of hardware engineers and mathematicians. Set of references how to develop software is a result of software engineering. A castigation with a significant importance in both academia and industry. The people who develop software are known as software programmer or software developers.
Waterfall model:
There are some steps to develop a software and these step must be followed by sequence. If a programmer follows these step the chances of errors or failure of software becomes very less. These steps are called SDLC (system development life cycle).
These steps are as follow:
I. Preliminary investigation
II. Design
III. Coding
IV. Testing
V. Implementation
VI. Maintenance
The waterfall tried to suspension requirements for the duration of software development.
A developer could face 4 type of difficulties in developing a software.
I. Accidental difficulties
These are the difficulties of current/ past/ future technologies.
II. Essential difficulties
Subset of essential (defining) properties.
III. Complexity
Programs are among most complex systems ever created.
IV. Conformity.
2. How SE is reshaping Pakistan software industry:
The results of data analysis reports facts related to Job Roles, Programming Languages, Gender, Qualification, City, Age and Salaries. The results are discussed below:
Job roles:
The total number of jobs posted against each role and percentage of jobs supply by job roles is shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively. The results despised that the most challenging job roles are web developer 39%, software developer 29%, android developer 8%, IOS developer 5%, game developer 3% and graphics designer 3%. The all other roles i.e. database expert, project manager, SEO expert, software architect etc. are less demanded. These results display a clear representation to student in order to make resolution related carriers in particular job roles.
Salaries Comparison by Job Roles:
Every job has elected salaries depending upon the stipulation, skills and services required. Most of the individuals are concerned to job roles with higher salaries packages. The Figure 5 gives a detailed contrast of salary ranges (minimum and maximum) for specific job roles. The results revile that the most highly paid Job roles include Information security professionals with salary range from Rs. 250000 – 500000 and Software Designer with salary range from Rs. 100000 – 300000. The results of salaries comparison seem interesting as these two highly paid job roles are not much demanded by software industry as discussed above in industrial demand by job roles.

3. Software effects on economy:
Profound impacts on our economy:
Software revolution’s optimistic economic impact can be seen all the way through our national economy — donating to our GDP, generating jobs, thrilling wages, and safeguarding our future. To measure these impacts, we introduced a unique analysis to discover whether these impacts can be seen across the country in all 50 states, whether software’s growing economic prospective carries through to other sectors of the economy, and whether these welfares extend to local economies, businesspersons, employees, patrons, and administrations alike.
Software innovations and jobs:
The software industry directly added $475.3 billion to the US economy in 2014. When factoring in its full effect (both indirect and induced), software was responsible for a total $1.07 trillion of all US value-added GDP in 2014.
From app developers to bookkeepers, and from web originators to project managers, software creates jobs for a wide range of authorities across the US economy. While the software industry itself directly engaged 2.5 million people in the US in 2014, research shows the software industry supports a total of 9.8 million occupations when including the indirect and induced jobs that software supports.
Effects that rippling throughout economy:
Today’s software rebellion also is about helping us make smarter decisions. Rather than making big decisions based on gut or pure instinct, software innovations now are enabling us to better yoke data in ways that help us make better-informed decisions, with greater precision, faster speed, and bigger impact. According to one survey of IT decision makers across a range of industries, 59 percent report that refining the quality of decision making is the chief goal driving reserves in data technologies.

4. Failure projects in SE:
Failed projects of Software Engineering:
Here is a short list of failed projects of SE in different states:
started terminated System name Type of system Country Type of purchaser problems Outcome
1980 1993 Taurus Electronic trading platform London Stock exchange Scope creep, cost overrun Cancel
1984 1990 RISP Integrated computer service United kingdom Wessex health authority Scope creep, cost overrun Cancel
2007 2012 DaPolsag Police case management Denmark police Did not work properly, technical problems with contractor. Cancel
2007 2014 e-Border Advanced passenger information program United kingdom UK border Agency A series of delays. Cancel
2007 2010 Forsakrinfskassan SAP Dental health service system Sweden Social insurance agency Not fit for purpose, multiple delays, cost overruns Cancel
2014 Pust siebel Police case management Sweden police Poor functioning, inefficient in work environments. Scrape

Failure project can be defined as one or a mixture of cost invades, late distributions, poor quality, and/or emerging a product that does not get used. When measuring these failed projects some of these perform “reasonably” when compared with industry trends, yet to the organization they are estimated failure.

5. What is Pakistan Software Export Board (PSED) and Incubation Centre (IBC):
Pakistan software export board (PSEB):
The Pakistan Software Export Board (PSEB) facilitates and internationally promotes IT industry comprising of Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology enabled Services (ITeS) companies, with the aim to accelerate IT exports of Pakistan. PSEB is a guarantee limited company, owned and funded by the Government of Pakistan. It is under the administrative control of the Federal Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunications, and is governed by Board of Directors, chaired by the Federal Minister of IT and Telecommunications.
Major functions of PSEB:
Formulate and implement policy frameworks and incentive packages for the IT industry.
• Act as an interface between the Government and the IT industry.
• Interact with the relevant regulatory bodies to develop the enabling infrastructure.
• Conceptualize and execute projects for the development of the Industry.
• Resolve problems/concerns of the IT industry with relevant government quarters.
• Address queries by overseas companies or direct them to the appropriate channels.
Incubation Centre (IBC):
“National Incubation Center Project” means “an information & communication technologies development project focusing on creating strong economic impact by successfully supporting start-up and emerging technology companies to create and /or commercialize knowledge-intensive products and services through establishment of a purpose- built Incubator.”
“Incubator” or “National Incubation Center” means “an ICT tycoon development platform funded by Company and outsourced to a professional management team with an objective to accelerate the growth and success of ICT free enterprise. It will be achieved through a wide array of business support resources including but not limited to site administration, advertising, practical knowledge, exercises, management 4 resources, physical space, shared Information Technology services and assistance in obtaining finance/startup capital to ensure initiative growth”.

6. Write down software quality attributes of your favorite software:
Favorite software of mine:
As all the software are useful and many are my favorite just like Notisave, Avast anti-virus, snapchat, squareArt and youCam ets but most favorite software of mine is PDF reader.
Why it’s my favorite:
when you view a PDF, you can get information about it, such as the heading, the typefaces used, and the security setting. Some of this information is set by the person who created the document, and some is produced routinely.
In acrobat, you can change any information that can be set by the document creator, unless the file has been saved with security setting that prevent changes.
• Choose file > properties
• Click a tab in the document properties dialogue box
Why it the best format:
Working with PDF formats allow professionals to edit, share, collaborate and insure the security of the content within digital document. Now the PDF can do the much more. Here is the top 10 hit list of why it is the best format.
i. PDFs are universal
ii. Trusted security
iii. Quick and easy to create
iv. Decreases file size
v. Reading is free (Adobe Reader)
vi. Interactive documents
vii. Mobile access
viii. Completely searchable
ix. Password protection
x. Document analytics
The portable document format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents including texts formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems. Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed layout flat document, including the text, font, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it. PDF was standardized as an open format, ISO 32000, in 2008 and does not required any royalties for its implementation.