REFERENCES Annul book of ASTM standards

REFERENCES
Annul book of ASTM standards (2011) ? Petroleum products, Lubricants and Fossil Fuels ? volume 05.05.1
Speight, J.G. (2002). Handbook of Petroleum Products Analysis. A John & Sons, Inc., Hoboken. New Jersey.
Flash point fire point retrieved on October 16, 2016, from http://www.engineersedge.com/lubrication/flash_point_fire_point.htm
Nadkarni, R.A (Ed.) (2007) “Guide to ASTM Test Methods for the Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants” ASTM manual series; no. mnl44-2nd USA ASTM international.

DETERMINATION OF CONCENTRATION OF CALCIUM, ZINC AND
PHOSPHORUS IN LUBRICATIING OILS
ABSTRACT
The aim of this experiment was to determine the concentration of calcium, zinc and phosphorous in lubricants by using Spectroil Q100 apparatus. This Spectro’s Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) device which uses spectroscopic technique was used in compliance with the ASTM D 6595 and D 6728 test methods during determination of quantity metals in lubricating oils. The quantities of elements determined in different tested lubricating oils are as shown in the table below.
Table concentration of Calcium, Zinc and Phosphorus in tested lubricating oils
Sample name Concentration of calcium in the sample (ppm) concentration of zinc in the sample (ppm) concentration of phosphorous in the sample (ppm)
Quartz 500 SAE 20W-50 0.3066 0.1006 0.0943
Motor Oil 0.3328 0.1250 0.0900
Power Fleet Turbo HD 15W/40 0.2688 0.1168 0.0985
Oryx Trans Fluid 10W 0.2000 0.0508 0.0506

THEORY
The quantity of calcium, zinc and phosphorous are very crucial components of the lubricating oils which are used to impart very important characteristics to the lubricating oils. Calcium imparts several important characteristics to the lubricating oils, since it acts as a detergent because it is a metal cleaning agent, by preventing buildup of deposits on surfaces and suspended impurities (dust and combustion residue), calcium also tends to react with CO2 gas which a combustion product to form CaCO3 which is basic in nature which in turn reacts with the acidic products formed in the engine to neutralizes them for prevention of corrosion (Simanzhenkov, 2003). Zinc is an anti-oxidant; it protects lubricating oils from decomposition by reducing oxidation (Heverly 2012). And phosphorus acts as an anti-wear, it is mostly found in phosphorus containing compounds like amine phosphates contained in some additives. Phosphorus is more effective at moderate loads and temperature, and in an essential element in hydraulic oils (Gunsel 2003).
The Spectroil Q100 apparatus is the one which is used to determine the concentrations of calcium, zinc and phosphorous in parts per million (ppm) contained in the lubricating oil. This apparatus uses the principle of spectroscopy, a technique for detecting and quantifying the presence of elements in the oil. Spectroscopy utilizes the fact that each element has unique atomic spectral lines after being excited (no two elements have the same spectral lines). The intensity of the emitted light is proportional to the quantity of element present in the sample allowing the concentration of the element to be determined. In this method the sample to be diagnosed is heated by the electric discharge, which imparts an arc or spark to the sample. The sample is excited and produces different spectral lines for different elements which is detected by Spectroil software program on the computer, and gives the quantity (concentration) of the elements in parts per million (ppm) (www.spectrosci.com).

EXPERIMENTAL PART
This part includes the material and methodology used.
Apparatus used
In this experiment the Specroil Q100 apparatus was used to determine the concentration of calcium, zinc and phosphorous in different tested lubricating oil. The following are the important components of this apparatus.
The test cup in which the sample to be detected is placed, disc and rod electrode (carbon) for testing the sample, the excitation source which introduces energy to the sample, optical system which separates and resolves the resulting emission from the excitation into its components wavelength, and the spectroil software program which display the concentrations of elements on the computer in parts per million. The general layout of this apparatus is shown on figure shown below.

Fig. Spectroil Q100
CHEMICALS USED
The chemicals used during this experiment were; rinsing solvent for cleaning the lens, and the samples to be tested.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
The apparatus was cleaned by rubbing the lens with the soft tissue and drying it by its drying solvent, the sample to be tested was filled to the cleaned and well dried test cup to the level mark, then the test cup was placed to the supporting stand in the apparatus, a well sharpened carbon rod and disc were fixed to their position and the gap between them was maintained by adjustment, the Spectroil Q100 was switched on (started) and after few seconds the measurement was displayed on the computer, and the reading for the quantity of elements of interest (calcium, zinc and phosphorous) were recorded, and then the test sample was removed and the apparatus was cleaned.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The quantity of calcium, zinc and phosphorous were determined in different lubricating oils and the results found were tabulated as shown below in table
Table the concentration of calcium, zinc and phosphorous in tested lubricating oils
Sample name Amount calcium in the sample (ppm) Amount of zinc in the sample (ppm) Amount of phosphorous in the sample (ppm)
Quartz 5000 SAE 20W-50 0.3066 0.1006 0.0943
Motor Oil 0.3328 0.1250 0.0900
Power Fleet Turbo HD 15W/40 0.2688 0.1168 0.0985
Oryx Trans Fluid 10W 0.2000 0.0508 0.0506

The concentrations of calcium, zinc and phosphorus found in tested lubricating oils as shown in the table above, were found to conform to the specifications of lubricating oils according to the customer requirements. The concentration of each element in each lubricating oil varied, because of the different conditions in which lubricating oil is being used.
Quartz 5000 SAE 20W/50 and Motor Oil are both found with nearly the same concentrations of calcium, zinc and phosphorus because, they are both made purposely to be used in gasoline- and diesel engines, and they are universal lubricating oils meaning that they are multigrade oils. The Power Fleet Turbo HD 15W/40, a multigrade marine oil formulated for turbocharged engine is found with higher concentration of phosphorus compared to the rest tested lubricating oils because of its utility in marine environment. And Oryx Trans Fluid 10W was found with the less concentrations of calcium and zinc compared to the rest tested lubricating oils, because it is hydraulic oil (multigrade). Hydraulic oils are characterized with fewer concentrations of calcium and zinc due to their polarity characteristics which might make oil to emulsify with water and as result decrease the efficient of the lubricating oil.

CONCLUSION
The tested lubricating oils were found with the concentrations of calcium, zinc and phosphorus which were compatible with their specifications given. Hence the experiment was conducted successfully.

REFERENCES
Annul book of ASTM standards (2011) ? Petroleum products, Lubricants and Fossil Fuels ? volume 05.05.1
Heverly, R. (2012). Lubricant Additives. Vanderbilt R.T. co. STLE Houston
Smallheer, C.V. and Smith, R. K. (1967). Fuel and Lubricant additives. Cleveland, Lensins-Hiles Co.
Simanzhenkov.V. (2003). Crude Oil Chemistry. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. Basel
www.spectrosci.com