Abstract: .
Agriculture is that the most significant a part of Asian economy and it’s invariably been celebrate because the primary sector of India. On a median, concerning seventieth of the households and 70% of the urban population relies on agriculture as their supply of keep. Today, Asian country may be a major provider of many agricultural commodities like tea, coffee, rice, spices, oil meals, contemporary fruits, contemporary vegetables, meat and its preparations and marine product to the international market. Asian country may be a giant producer of many agricultural product. Indian agricultural sector within the pre-Independence amount will be properly delineate as a ‘subsistence’ occupation additionally has old an outstanding growth since the mid-twentieth century when the arrival of designing. at the present it’s reached the stage of development and maturity. consecutive stage of growth of Indian agriculture but, faces a heavy challenge in terms of property. Asian country can safely be characterized as associate agricultural country despite the recent spurt in manufacturing and services and thus the declining share of agriculture among the worth, since majority of its population (65%) unit of measurement still engaged in agriculture for keep. Agriculture is that the only suggests that of living for just about common fraction of the used class in Asian country. The agriculture sector of Asian country has occupied nearly 44percent of India’s realm in 2010-11. Therefore gift study is essentially a review of role, challenges and cropping pattern of Asian country agriculture.

Keywords: Agriculture sector, GDP, Subsistence, Employment, Cropping pattern.

India is an agrarian economy, where agriculture is the pre-dominant sector of the Indian economy. Even in present days, inspite Indian economy opening out to the world and globalization, agriculture serves as the most important sector in the economy. In fact in India the secondary and tertiary sectors are growing at increasing rates, still a majority of Indian manpower continue to depend on agriculture. After the Green revolution, India is now self-sufficient in production of food. Due to the increasing efforts and interventions by the society, nature and quantum of agricultural production is being influenced rapidly. Over last few decades Indian agriculture has registered impressive growth. The food grain production has increased from 51 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 255.36 million tonnes during 2012-13 highest ever since independence. Agriculture plays an important role Indian economy as it contributes about 17% to the total GDP.

• To Study the Issues associated with Indian Agriculture.

• To Analyze Problems and give their solutions related to Indian Agriculture.

• To discuss the cropping pattern of Indian Agriculture.

This study is of analytical nature and makes use of secondary data. The required; relevant secondary data are collected from various publications of Government of India, census data, from the data of Five Year Plans and various other websites. The time series data and the relevant data have been collected for the period 1950 to 2017.

In the initial stages of economic development of India, Agriculture has been the prime economic activity. Initially its nature also remained primitive where fewer interventions were made by the people for production and economic activities. However, because the method of economic development started flowering as a result of increasing efforts by the society, agriculture was being seen as a crucial supply of economic development. Being the predominant economic activity, agriculture is meant to produce support to the non-agricultural economic activities in many ways. Some of the major roles being played by the agricultural sector in Indian economy are as follows:
1)Share in financial gain value- Agriculture shared simple fraction of national income at the time of initial war. However, once the initiation of designing in Republic of Asian nation, the share of agriculture has persistently declined on account of the event of the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. From 53.1 % in one950-51, the share of agriculture and allied activities in gross domestic product at issue value declined to twenty nine.6 % in 1990-91 and extra to thirteen.9 % in 2012-13.

2)Largest employment providing sector- In Asian nation throughout 1951, 69.5 per cent of the operative population was engaged in agriculture. This share fell to sixty six.9 you tired of 1991 and to fifty six.7 you tired of 2001. Throughout the quantity 2008-11, agriculture provided employment to forty six you look after the male workers and sixty five you look after the female workers. With speedy increase in population, fully the range of people engaged in agriculture has become extraordinarily big.

3)Provision of food surplus to the increasing population- thanks to serious pressure of population in labour-surplus economies like Asian nation and its speedy can increase, the demand for food can increase at a fast rate. Agriculture is answerable for provision food to the oldsters in associate economy. Agriculture is that the only major provide of food offer as a result of it’s providing regular supplier of food to such an outsized size of population of our country. it has been calculated that relating to sixty per cent of house consumption is met by agricultural product.

4)Providing raw materials to industries- Agriculture sector provides varied inputs/raw materials to the economic sector of national importance. In fact, industrial sector needs varied styles of raw materials from the agriculture sector, specially for the agro-based industries. Sugar trade, jute trade, cotton trade square measure a number of the agro-based industries that square measure only relied on agriculture. Thus, unless agricultural sector develops, these industries will stay backwards.

5)Role of poorness reduction- Agriculture contributes 17 November of Asian nation’s value and it continues to use quite half the work force of India. Agriculture plays a supply of bread and butter and food security for the population of Asian nation. Its role in poorness reduction is axiomatic. As Asian nation continues to be home to the amount of poor persons and unnourished individuals, a serious priority to agriculture can attain the goals of reducing poorness and deficiency disease still as achieving growth.

6)Market for industrial merchandise- Agriculture sector provides massive market to the products of the economic sector still as service sector. The interaction of the agricultural sector with the progressive fashionable sectors is extremely useful in overall development of Indian economy.

7)Importance in international trade- Agriculture in Asian nation is enjoying a extremely vital role every at intervals the inner and external trade of the country. Agricultural merchandise like tea, coffee, sugar, tobacco, spices, cashew-nuts etc. unit the foremost things of our exports and represent regarding fifty per cent of our total exports. Besides mass-produced jute, cotton textiles and sugar to boot contribute another twenty per cent of the complete exports of the country. therefore nearly seventy per cent of India’s exports unit originated from agricultural sector. Further, it helps the country in earning precious exchange to satisfy the required import bill of the country.

8)Overall Economic Development- within the course of economic development, agriculture employs majority of people. this implies raising the extent of the worth and customary of living of the human. The fast rate of growth in agriculture sector offers progressive outlook and any motivation for development. As a result, it helps to create correct atmosphere for general economic development of the economy. Thus, economic development depends on the speed at that agriculture grows.

9)Source of presidency Revenue- In our country, many state governments get sizeable revenue from the agriculture sector. Land revenue, agricultural taxation, irrigation tax and a number of differing types of taxes square measure being levied on agriculture by the state governments. Moreover, considerably revenue is earned by manner of excise duty and duty on agricultural merchandise. Dominion committee on Agricultural Taxation has steered imposition of taxation on agricultural gain for raising revenue.

The higher than discussion bring out clearly that agriculture occupies a very important place within the development of Indian economy. it’s really, development of agriculture could be a pre-condition for economic up liftmen.

At the time of Independence, Indian agricultural sector was in a state of backwardness. Indian agriculture was backward and qualitatively traditional in nature on the eve of the First Five Year plan. However is not sufficient to call India’s agriculture backward without knowing the causes responsible for this state of affairs. So the three agriculture sector challenges are vital to India’s overall development and therefore the improved welfare of its rural poor:
1)Raising agricultural productivity per unit of land: Raising productivity per unit of land can have to be compelled to be the most engine of agricultural growth as nearly all arable land is farmed. Water resources also are restricted and water for irrigation should manage increasing industrial and concrete wants. Farmers additionally suffer owing to lack of irrigation facilities. Moreover, normal sorts of seed will be replaced by higher varieties if there’s an assured supply of water. The necessity for the development of minor irrigation works of an area nature is each imperative and pressing. In fact, the entire water potential within the country is over equal to irrigate the full areas beneath cultivation. However, the current problem is one in all discovering low cost and simple ways of utilising these immense provides of water.

2)Reducing rural poverty through a socially inclusive strategy that comprises both agriculture as well as non-agriculture employment: Rural development should additionally profit the poor, landless, women, scheduled castes and tribes. Moreover, there are robust regional disparities: the bulk of India’s poor are in rain-fed areas or within the jap Indo Gangetic plains. Reaching such teams has not been simple. Whereas progress has been created the agricultural population classified as poor fell from nearly four-hundredth within the early Nineties to below half-hour by the mid-2000s there’s a transparent would like for a quicker reduction. Hence, impoverishment alleviation could be a central pillar of the agricultural development efforts of the government and therefore the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
3)Ensuring that agricultural growth responds to food security needs: The sharp rise in food-grain production throughout India’s revolution of the 1970’s enabled the country to attain autonomy in food-grains and foreclose the threat of famine. Agricultural intensification within the 1970’s to 1980 saw associate enhanced demand for rural labor that raised rural wages and, besides declining food costs, reduced rural economic condition. But agricultural growth within the 1990’s and 2000’s stalled, averaging concerning 3.5% each year, and cereal yields have enhanced by only 1.4% each year within the 2000’s. The slow-down in agricultural growth has become a significant cause for concern. India’s rice yields area unit third of China’s and concerning half those in Vietnam and land. Identical is true for many different agricultural commodities. Policy manufacturers can so got to initiate and/or conclude policy actions and public programs to shift the world far from the present policy and institutional regime that seems to be not viable and build a solid foundation for a far additional productive, internationally competitive, and wide-ranging agricultural sector.
The presence of large diversities in the agricultural sector makes it necessary to devise separate agricultural policies for different regions. It is not possible to generalize and formulate a single agricultural policy for the country as a whole as such generalization is bound to gloss over inter-regional differences and fail to deliver the goods.

By crop pattern, means the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time, changes in this distribution over a period of time, and factors determining this change in distribution. Cropping pattern in India is determined mainly by natural factors. However technological factors have also very important for India’s cropping pattern. Various significant facts about the cropping pattern in India are as follows:
1)Food crops including cereals, millets, pulses, vegetables and fruits cover nearly three-fourth of total cropped area. For instance in 1950-51, out of total area of 97.3 million hectares under food grains as much as 78.2 million hectares was devoted to cereals. Of the total area of 120.2 million hectares under food grain in 2012-13, 97.6 million hectares was devoted to cereals.

2)In India rice is the most important food grain. It is grown on more than one-third of the total of the total area under food grains. In 1950-51, it was grown on 30.8 million hectares which amounted to 31.6 percent of the total area devoted to food grains. In 2012-13, it was grown on 42.4 million hectares which amounted to 35.3 percent of total area under food grains.

6.1 Area, production and yield of major Crops
Table 6.1: Cropping pattern of Indian Agriculture
CropsArea (Lakh hectare) Production (Million tonnes)Yields (Kg per hactare)
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Rice441.36 441.10433.88106.65105.48104.32241623912404
Wheat304.73 314.65302.2795.8586.5293.50314527503093
Coarse cereals252.19 251.70237.7543.2942.8637.93171717031596
Pulses252.12 235.54252.5919.2517.1516.47764728652
Food grains1250.411243.001226.50265.04252.02252.22212020282056
Oilseeds280.50 255.96261.3432.7427.5125.3011681075968
Sugarcane49.93 50.6649.53352.14362.33352.16705227151271095
Cotton*119.60 128.19118.7235.9034.8030.15510462432
Jute ; Mesta**8.38 8.097.8511.6911.1210.47251224732399
@ 4th advance estimates
*Production in million bales of 170 kg each.

**Production in million bales 180 Kg. each.

3)The other main important food grain crop in India is wheat. In 1950-51, it was shown on 9.8 million hectares. However, it has consistently improved its position particularly after the advent of green revolution during the mid-1960. In 2012-13, wheat was grown on 29.7 million hectares which comes to 24.7 percent of the area under food grains.

4)The case of coarse cereals is not very satisfactory in India. The combined area under jowar, bajra and maize declined in percentage from 28.6 in 1950-51 to 20.5 in 2012-13. Coarse cereals also face competition from superior cereals like rice and wheat which in some areas are available at prices lower than that of coarse cereals.

5)Area under oilseeds was 10.7 million hectares in 1950-51 and 19 million hectares in 1985-86. To meet the domestic requirement of edible oils, the government had to import considerable amount of oilseeds in early 1980s. To achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils, the government launched a number of programmes in 1980s. As a result of these programmes, area under oilseeds increased speedy from 19 million hectares in 1985-86 to 26.2 million hectares in 1998-99. Thereafter, it started falling and in 2003-04, area under oilseeds was 23.7 million hectares. However, in 2012-13, area under oilseeds stood at 26.5 million hectares.

6)Coming to commercial crops it is shown that area under sugarcane increased from 1.7 million hectares in 1950-51 to 2.8 million hectares in 1995-96 and 5.1 million hectares in 2012-13. Area under cotton rose from 5.9 million hectares in 1950-51 to 12.0 million hectares in 2012-13. The area under jute and Mesta increased from 0.6 million hectares in 1950-51 to 0.9 million hectares in 2012-13.

The above data shows that the cropping pattern in India has undergone significant changes during the period of planning. These cropping patterns are due to a number of factors like natural factors, social factors, historical factors and economic factors of the country.

Most of the Indians square measure directly or indirectly looking on the agriculture. Some unit directly connected with the farming and many others unit involved in doing business with this merchandise. State has the potential to supply the food grains which can produce large distinction in Indian Economy. Agriculture makes the perfect contribution to India’s gross domestic product. It’s been seen inside the previous couple of years that the input of the agriculture sector has been declining, but it’s still the most important contributor. Agriculture occupies a distinguished position in Indian policymaking not entirely as a result of its contribution to gross domestic product but to boot as a result of the large proportion of the population that is passionate about the planet for its bread and butter. However it’s clear that India’s agricultural sector has created huge strides in developing its potential. The revolution massively accumulated the assembly of necessary food grains and introduced technological innovations into agriculture. This progress is manifested in India’s net trade position. where once state had to consider imports to feed its people, since 1990 it is a net bourgeois of agrifood product. Its agriculture is huge and numerous and its sheer size means that even slight changes in its trade have necessary effects on world agricultural markets. Lastly, inside the implementation of reforms for roaring economic process, one crucial part, not entirely within management is that they need for good governance and stability inside the political and economic atmosphere.