Kakad Vinit (C764X766)
Wichita State University
Department of Industrial Systems & Manufacturing Engineering
IME 767, Lean Manufacturing
Assignment: Extra Credit Book Summary
Lean Manufacturing or Lean Enterprise is a prominent method for continuous improvement which has modified the manufacturing techniques, procedures and practices worldwide. Starting from the automotive industry, the methodology has been utilized broadly in the Industrial sector since the 1990s. Fundamentally, lean manufacturing revolved around the rationality of constantly enhancing exhibitions by methodically wiping out waste on shop floor. Lean Thinking was acquainted with expand the idea from the manufacturing work space to a business activity level. The book depicts the different issues looked by Unico organization and the solutions for those issues. The book likewise incorporates the change master Jonah and the plant supervisor Mr. Alex Rogo association for tackling different issues with respect to the creation which encourages him to walk the route through a few dubious circumstances by following the guide to spare the creation plant from getting shut. The book comprehends the idea of bottleneck and throughput and give the models to clarify the idea and the answers for survive the issues with respect to them.

Keywords: Continuous Improvement, Value, Value stream, Flow, Pull, Perfection, Muda, Muri, Mura.

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The book primarily focuses on the lean principles, which helps to get rid of Muda it is a Japanese word for waste (Non value-added activities) and guides the way by how to apply lean culture in an organization by implementing lean tools and techniques on shop floor. The authors contend that a lean mindset enables organizations to “specify value, line up value creating activities in the best arrangement, direct these exercises without intrusion at whatever point somebody demands them, and perform them more effectively. This announcement prompts the five standards of lean thinking: Value, Value Stream, Flow, Pull and Perfection.
Value is characterized by the creators as a “capacity gave to client at the right time at a proper cost, as characterized for each situation by the customer.2” Value is the basic beginning stage for lean thinking and must be characterized by a definitive end customer. A definitive end client, or the user of the item, is diverged from break clients, such deals, marketing, distribution, providers, and so forth. Value likewise is product, and the authors contend it is just important when expressed in terms of a specific product. The value stream is considered as second principle and defined in Lean Thinking as the set of all “specific activities.

The value stream is characterized in Lean Thinking as the arrangement of all the “specific activities required to configuration, arrange, and give a particular item, from idea to dispatch, request to conveyance, and raw materials under the control of the customer. To build a value stream, portray the end result for an item at each progression in its generation from raw materials-WIP-finished goods There are three types of activities discussed by the author in the value stream – one kind includes value, and the other two are “Muda” (the Japanese word for waste): Value-Added: Those activities that unambiguously create value. • Type One Muda: Activities that make no value yet appear to be unavoidable with current innovations or generation resources. • Type Two Muda: Activities that create no value and are quickly avoidable.
Few examples of Muda are mistakes which require amendment, gatherings of individuals in a downstream movement looking out for an upstream action, or products which don’t address the issues of the client.
The lean principle of flow is characterized as the “dynamic accomplishment of activities along the value stream so an item continues from configuration to dispatch, request to conveyance and raw materials under the control of the client without any stoppages, scrap or backflows.” This makes an interpretation of as a mandate to forsake the customary cluster and-line method of reasoning that appears to be practical to most. Approaches to encourage stream incorporate empowering fast changes of devices in assembling and rightsizing machines and finding consecutive advances neighboring each other.
The fourth lean principle of pull is characterized by the creators as an “arrangement of falling production and conveyance guidelines from downstream to upstream in which nothing is delivered by the upstream provider until the point that the downstream client flags a need.6” This is conversely with pushing items through a framework, which is lethargic to the client and results in superfluous stock development.

The fifth and last lean principle is Perfection i.e. flawlessness, characterized again by the creators as the “Total elimination of waste i.e. Muda with the goal that all tasks along an value stream make value. This fifth rule makes the quest for lean a ceaseless procedure, as there will dependably be exercises that are considered Muda in the value stream and the entire end of Muda is all the more a coveted end-express that a genuinely achievable objective.
Theme 1: Value
There are five basic principles of the lean which are discussed by the author they are Value, value stream, Flow, Pull Perfection. These principles take a shot at center thought of making most extreme value for client by utilizing low assets. Value is defined by the ultimate customer and created by the manufacturer in terms of products or services. Makers thinks about the clients necessity and viewpoint to create value. Subsequently delivers and customer are imperative for characterizing the value of the product. The creator discusses his outing to Germany and found the proof for the value produced by the Engineers and turn around circulation of the value at private bank controlled organizations where client and production line required complex plans of the item with manufactured with the substantial machines. He provided a case of the Toyota the pioneer of the lean structure began their value processing by noting one inquiry “where the value is made”? How they can characterize the value and how they outline and can make them at home. Creator recommended to keep aside the benefits you have and reexamine the best approach to characterize successful value and where in the universe to make it.
As indicated by writer it is hard to characterize an value for the product should be on the grounds that manufacturers or producers are producing what they know as of now and clients necessities increments as per the time. Customer require all the more every time they get more. Adding value isn’t anything but difficult to undertaking by simply making item and partitioning the expense in to different area. Client has no worry about the procedure being utilized to make the item yet very ponders the quality of the product and services. There is dependably a space for rethinking about specifying the value for continuous improvement and repeating the procedure for accomplishing flawlessness or perfection.

Theme 2: Value Stream
Value Stream is an exceptional step undertaken by the organizations however it has demonstrated positive outcomes for uncovering the most extreme measure of Muda. It manages the every one of the means from making item to delivering the service of the customer. Author gave a case for Value stream the world’s biggest producer of jet engines which began to map value stream for its three result of jet engines as its material provider was copying the ultrapure metal at incredible quantity for the following firm and material utilized was considerably heavier than the necessitate that the 90% of the metal were squandered. It demonstrated the Muda which has been uncovered in ultrapure metal was in an incredible quantity. Value stream comprise of both productive and non-productive strides from raw materials to finished goods.
For better understanding creator utilizes the reference of the refreshments producing organization Cola. The eight can cardboard of cola delivered at path in Tesco incorporates the procedure of 300 days which was extremely long and the vast majority of which are non-value-added activities and expending assets at critical sum making Muda. As per the author at the period of value stream determination he found that the majority of the action there were no means of the third level which can be wiped out promptly to cut down waste due to verbosity in the process. In any case, there were heaps of second level exercises discovered which were creating Muda and should be killed instantly. The value stream examines demonstrated the pointless procedure when you outline and gives a thought regarding disposal of the superfluous movement utilizing lean approach.

Theme 3: Flow
Once the value is evaluated and value stream has been mapped the following stage for lean is the smoothness of stream. It was uplifted by the Toyota way and house of Toyota in which the primary focus is the stream of work or taking out unevenness additionally called Mura. The author gave a case of ford industry in which Henry Ford limit the weight on endeavors required to assemble model T ford by 90 percent by utilizing the procedure of consistent stream. Just the proviso was this procedure was proficient for large scale manufacturing or to create same parts. One can accomplish powerful process underway by permitting the utilization of smooth stream it won’t just lessen the waste yet additionally diminish the non-value added activities which are important to increase the value of product.

Author discusses a few stages for making a fruitful stream of process in which after determination of significant worth and mapping of significant worth stream, outlining, delivering, request and never dismissing the procedure prompt the initial step. Initial step prompts the disregarding the conventional method for the activity and business requirements and expelling all shortcomings from lean structure for the ceaseless stream of the item. The last advance incorporates reevaluating of the work rehearse, tools utilized, machinery and HR to dispose of back flow and anticipates deterrents in nonstop stream process for smooth creation process.

Theme 4: Pull
Pull system doesn’t require any estimate, it is the capability to plan and chart the production precisely as per the customer necessity, what client need and when customer need. Pull is make for requirement, not influencing anything until downstream client to request it. It gives the client to pull the item from the you and it a chance to will decrease the undertaking related with the make to stock procedure otherwise called push system. Pull system diminishes the misuse of stock. Author clarifies the Pull system by giving the illustration of the book imprinted in United States each year. More often than books are torn or squandered as a result of the push system utilized in printing. Distributer prints a great many duplicates even in the wake of realizing that just couple of thousand will be sold. As no smooth stream was monitored the main path is to figure out how to print little portion and sit tight for the interest to create just required quantity without squandering an excessive number of duplicates of the book.
After the revelation of the progress the items were delivered in quick preparing speed. Because of the quick creation rate, the requests were set aside a few minutes and the throughput time for regular physical manufacturing are diminished to negligible. Lean structure can make item as of now underway to any mix so request can be obliged quickly. Agreeing author for smooth process stream of production it is important to decrease throughput time considerably in item improvement, 75 percent in preparing of request and 90 percent in assembling of material item.

Theme 5: Perfection
Author clarifies flawlessness or perfection by giving illustration of Freudenberg-NOK vibration damper producer where they implemented Kaizen events to accomplish 56 percent boost in labor profitability and 13 percent loss in the utilization of plant space and moreover by diminishing the quantity to 48 percent it tends to break through the efficiency by 91 percent by doing Kaizen events over and over which clarify the guideline of continuous improvement a way towards flawlessness. Author infers that after the usage of four lean guideline there is no conclusion to the procedure if diminishing the waste, cost, control, botches. He says that the four standards are connected to one another so that you will locate the noteworthy measure of Muda after the investigation of significant value stream which will uncover concealed Muda also in value determination and pulling will give you the deterrent to the stream of the procedure with the goal that they can be wiped out.
Recurring the procedure and again will prompt the reexamining of the procedure parameters where you will discover the path for continuous improvement which will lead you to the perfection. clarity is imperative piece of the perfection in which everybody including manufacturer to the customer in the middle of can see the stream of work and will have the capacity to increase the value of the item. Accomplishing flawlessness resembles the accomplishing shared trust and having straightforwardness during the business deal. If process is being done over and over will attach organization to the continuous improvement in all the four principles of the lean intended to kill each sort of Muda and constant change will lead the organization to increase the continuous flow of production.

Theme 1:
Customer defines the value and producer creates value. Author believes in value for the customer which disregard on capability to pass judgement and recognize the need for customer. The current resources and technologies give the ideal approach to reexamine the value of product by organization. One of the examples discussed in the book is about German Architect is a sort of experienced professional expected to reevaluate the body of firm specialization to reassess precisely which part of the world is best to create value for the ultimate customer.

Value is a standout amongst the most vital ideas inside Lean thinking and standout amongst the most important results which lean gives. Values analysis concentrates on boosting the value of enterprise in the view of customer. Value added activities increments the value of goods and services.

Theme 2:
Value stream is more like a tool which helps find the hidden Muda which cannot be identified easily. It proves to be useful when organizations began outsourcing the employments than making independent from anyone else. It requires value stream consideration for the inventory to track its path from raw material to finished goods to preserve the deal amongst the enterprise and production process. straightforwardness and the direct contracts help too have powerful esteem stream to affirm that substitute firms are following the lean guidelines.

Theme 3:
Flow is considered as the crucial factor of lean enterprise as it interfaces the value stream and value to the pull. To smoothen the production process Henry ford implemented the continuous flow because the production of Ford model was compelling and should have been smooth eliminate waste of waiting and the Muda related to production line, they were producing majority of the automotive product. The best model given in the Lean Thinking which is associated with the Taiichi Ohno batch processing was father & daughter discussion about the most ideal approach to crease, address seal stamp and mail the month to month issues of her mom’s newsletter’s. It demonstrates the adequacy of group creation as opposed to individual production.

Theme 4:
Pull states that make the product only when the downstream customer asks for it. It decreases the hazard related with the stock and the overproduction. It also saves a lot of capitol of organization because if production is limited, holding cost will be reduced and organization don’t need to spent money to make strategies for production flow ex, forecasting. When we saw the method for strong Toyota the two frameworks were taken after, are Kiyotaka Nakayama Toyotas task administration counseling division and California Motor deal accomplishment exhibiting pull system which was important after the marvel called Chaos convey us the present Toyota production network and the activities.

Theme 5:
In the wake of finishing all four principles of lean then in a long run then there is no stop sign for this process. This process goes on until it eliminates Muda and become flawless i.e. perfection. Principles drives behaviors, behaviors drive actions and action drives results. Customer needs more every time they get; their necessities changes each time which sets new guidelines and request the constant change at every step it takes towards the perfection and again it goes a long way from the scope. Each employee in the organization should be involved in implementing lean culture. Experts often say that a lean doesn’t catch a process until its been practice for at least two months. Practice it until it becomes a habit.

Lean Thinking principles are an enhancement of lean definition that is the manner by which value is created productively and viably in a production system generally speaking by staying concentrated on the clients and Competent. The five lean principles which are discussed by author in the process of establishing lean based culture and guide ways to the continuous improvement journey by eliminating “DOWNTIME” or waste by cooperating with each other as a team returning to every action in a value stream to determine if there is room for improvement. The level of advancement and change driven by the lean thinking in organizations in the end has energized administration groups from different enterprises to consider and adopt the five important principles in their association.

The Lean Thinking demonstrates the few organizations are focusing on the significant technique of the lean perfection guideline benchmarks and same rivalry is powerful in a few different markets as the lean tools have immense stability for the change. Womack and Jones raised that the people are adopting lean idea outside the comfort zone simply like the case of Cusumano and Nobeoka given in the book. In total thought author left loads of point where intrigue lies in the and absence of elucidating data in the given instances of lean structure. Additionally, all the five standards were disclosed by considering preferences to the organizations however the expense related with disservices and the escape clauses were not featured or not given equivalent significance.

In todays world it is believed that by achieving higher operational goals or excellence is a adaption of root principles of continuous improvement culture. Likewise, all other strategies there should be room for one for strategy i.e. worker suggestion program would be a key strategy to lean program.

Improving organizational culture by adopting feedback programs and gatherings, fair around neighborhood.

Laborers empowerment by encouraging them to participate in lean culture.

Reducing conflicts between Managers and workers by motivating them consistently.

James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones. Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, Simon & Schuster, Inc. 1996, Second Edition, 2003.
Åhlström, P. (1998). Sequences in the implementation of lean production. European Management Journal, 16(3), pp.327-334.

Akhil Kumar. (2014). A Qualitative Study on the Barriers of Lean Manufacturing Implementation: An Indian Context (Delhi NCR region). International Journal of Engineering and Science. Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 21-28. Ohno, Taiichi. Toyota Production System. New York: Productivity Press; 1988.