Utilization of Terminalia catappa

Utilization of Terminalia catappa (Talisay Leaves) Extract Chemical Coagulation for the Separation of Microplastics in River Water

As Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject
RESEARCH III

ABAD, Arianna Janna A.

CISNERO, Angela B.

DANGUILAN, Karl Vinzent K.

MATUBIS, Janina D.

PRING, Robin Ace R.

RAGPA, Alexandra Mari H.

RAMOS, Kyla Louise M.

Quezon City Science High School
The Regional Science High School for National Capital Region
RationalePlastic is the most prevalent type of marine debris found in our ocean and Great Lakes. Plastic debris can come in all shapes and sizes, but those that are less than five millimeters in length (or about the size of a sesame seed) are called “microplastics.” 1 The global distribution of plastics is a result of the fragmentation and transportation by wind and currents to the aquatic environment, from inland lakes and rivers to the open ocean and likely deposition to coastlines or the seafloor. 2 Regional and global estimates of floating debris have come forth 3 and estimates of environmental concentrations have ranged from 8 million tons of plastic leaving shorelines globally each year. 4 While plastic products entering the ocean represent a range of varied polymers and plasticizers, many absorb (taking in) and adsorb (sticking to) other persistent organic pollutants and metals lost to the environment, resulting in a long list of toxicants associated with plastic debris. 5
Robert Baffrey of Manila Water utilizes three strategies as solution for wastewater or river management. The first strategy is constructing seperate systems with dedicated pipes connecting households and the Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). This process requires significant dimensions for pipes causing for the construction and customer drawback to be of an obstacle for the construction.

The second strategy of theirs, are for those people who live in non-sewered areas, is septage management. They have about 90 vacuum trucks that monitor the area and “desludge” septic tanks. Each of the tanks have to be desludged every 5-7 years, or else they won’t function normally and effectively. Which could contribute to the pollution of the environment. They cooperate with the local government units. So that they could have schedules in visiting households that needs to be desludged. Once the sludge is collected, it is transported to either of the two septage treatment facilities that they have and undergoes treatment before it is disposed.

Lastly, the third strategy is the combined sewer-drainage. Intercepting drainage canals are/is the most feasible technique to prevent waste water from getting into the river systems, considering that pipe-laying for separate sewer systems is preventive. Drainage canals emerge as the pathway for waste water overflowing from septic tanks to move towards the rivers. Interceptor systems were established for the rerouting of river water in the drainage system to our STPs in addressing this issue. Although it is not the most ideal combined approach, it will still provide the biggest, and most immediate effect on protecting our rivers. This system will in effect assist in accelerating the provision of sewerage service in the East Zone.

Manila Water also proposed a solution which aims to achieve 100- percent sewer coverage by the year of 2037, the Three River Master Plan, through a combination of sewer-drainage and separate sewer systems that cover all catchments that discharge to the the three river systems of the east concessions of Marikina, Pasig, and San Juan Rivers.

The first method which is the construction of separate frameworks, with pipes connecting households and our Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Is an extremely troublesome endeavor, as it requires expansive lengths and profundities for channels making development, and hence client obstruction, a prevention to usage. The other problems faced by the current treatments are variation in turbidity and flow, changing feed chemistry, being unaware of changes to quality requirements, and secondary waste.Terminalia catappa (Talisay Leaves) is a native plant to countries in Southeast Asia. The tree is abundant in places with subtropical and tropical climates. It is widely planted in the tropics, known for its edible nuts and ornamental purposes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557241/This tree is salt and drought tolerant due to being grown in this type of habitat. It is grown under the sun and is also resilient to strong winds. Different parts of the tree contain tanin, black and yellow dye, and has medicinal properties. http://philippinenativeforesttrees.blogspot.com/2010/08/talisai-or-indian-almond-or-umbrella.html#ixzz5MzZNUJVs
Talisay leaf extract is a potential organic coagulant for the treatment of surface water because it has the ability to remove turbidity. However, talisay leaf extract does not affect the pH level of water and it has no observable antibacterial property. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/terminalia-catappa-talisay-leaves-for-preliminary-surface-watertreatment-an-ecofriendly-approachs-2329-6836-1000249.pdf

The researchers have been studying the possibility of using new methods and materials to treat water in order to decrease the hazards of using inorganic coagulants for preliminary water treatments. Using Terminalia catappa (Talisay leaves) as natural coagulant is the aim of this study. 1.0 molar (M) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solution was used to extract the coagulation active agent in the leaves. Water with increased turbidity of 200 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) from Cagayan River, Tuguegarao City was used in this study. At present, in order to decrease the hazards of using inorganic coagulants for preliminary water treatment, researchers have been studying the possibility of using new methods and materials to treat water. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of turbidity removal in water by using Terminalia catappa (Talisay) as natural coagulant. The coagulation active agent in the leaves of Terminalia catappa was extracted with 1.0 molar (M) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solution. Water from Cagayan River, Tuguegarao City, with increased turbidity of 200 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) was used in this study. This study was done using Completely Randomized Design with loading doses of 2, 3, 4, and 5 mL/L of the stock solution with 5 g of Terminalia catappa leaf powder in 100 mL 1.0 M NaCl solution as coagulant. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/terminalia-catappa-talisay-leaves-for-preliminary-surface-watertreatment-an-ecofriendly-approachs-2329-6836-1000249.php?aid=85284;view=mobile
The proposed study aims to coagulate microplastics through the use of various amounts of talisay leaves extract to be tested in the same amount of water samples. This is to prove if the organic coagulant is effective in coagulating microplastics, and if the varied amounts will provide a different result in the amount of precipitate/ coagulated microplastic.

The student researchers believe this study could benefit marine life in rivers polluted with microplastics. This is because microplastics maybe toxic to marine life and aside from that it is also bioaccumulative.

Research Questions
• What is the effect of Terminalia catappa extract in the coagulation of microplastics in river water?
• Which of the following amounts of Terminalia catappa extract (2 ml, 3 ml, 4 ml, and
5 ml) is the most effective in the coagulation of microplastics?Hypotheses
Null: Terminalia catappa leaf extract is not effective in the coagulation of microplastics.

Alternative: Terminalia catappa leaf extract is effective in the coagulation of microplastics.

Expected Outcomes
The student researchers expect that the Terminalia catappa extract would be effective in coagulating microplastics. On the basis that it was effective in the treatment of turbidity in surface water. With concern to the most effective amount of extract, the researchers expect that it
would be 5 mL because it has the highest concentration.

Flowchart

3905250Collection of Talisay Leaves and Water Samples
Production of the Talisay Leaves Extract

Preparation of Setups

Addition of the Talisay Leaf Extract to the Setups

Measuring of Coagulated Microplastics
3905250

Procedures
Collection of Talisay Leaves and Water Samples The student researchers will gather 500 grams of Terminalia catappa (talisay) leaves from Quezon City Circle. The collected talisay leaves will then be verified at the National Museum of the Philippines. 1200 ml of water will then be obtained from Pasig River.
Production of the Talisay Leaves Extract
The talisay leaves will be rinsed using tap water. It would then be air-dried, cut into small pieces, and dried in the oven at 90°C for 12 hours to remove the remaining moisture. The leaves will then be ground to fine powder. The powder should be stored in an air-tight container.
Basing from the previous experimentation, 1 molar of Sodium Chloride will be used to extract the coagulation active agent in the talisay leaves. The extraction will be done at the University of Philippines Institute of Chemistry – Research Building with the help of a professional.

Preparation of Setups
Four setups will be prepared which will be named group A,B,C, and D respectively. Each setup will use 500 ml beakers. All containing 300 ml of river water. The setups will be mixed for two minutes to agitate the river water.
Addition of the Talisay Leaves Extract to the Setups
During the mixing process, the talisay leaf extract will be added. Group A will receive 2 ml of talisay leaf extract. Group B will receive 3 ml of talisay leaf extract. Group C will receive 4 ml of talisay leaf extract. Group D will receive 5 ml of talisay leaf extract.

Measuring of Coagulated Microplastics
After one hour, the water will be passed through a filter to separate the water from the coagulated microplastics. The precipitate will then be measured in milligrams.

Risk and Safety
A risk taken into consideration is in the preparation of materials and setups. Reaction of the researcher to the Terminalia catappa leaf extract can also be a risk, for example, an allergic reaction may happen to the researcher. Taking of samples might cause a reaction on the researcher as well as in the study of the said samples.

Safety measures observed are the use of proper attire in the experimental process. Proper attire includes sterilized masks, gloves, and gown. Guidance of a professional in the field of study is required and the researchers must follow the professional’s protocols regarding the experiment. Inspecting for damage and functionality must be done.

Bibliography
https://www.adb.org/features/robert-baffrey-dealing-manilas-dirty-water

Wastewater treatment, sewerage services in Metro manila upgraded

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https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/terminalia-catappa-talisay-leaves-for-preliminary-surface-watertreatment-an-ecofriendly-approachs-2329-6836-1000249.php?aid=85284&view=mobil