Write a report on Different types of Motors and their controllers

Write a report on Different types of Motors and their controllers, your report should include the following:
Servo motors that include positional rotation, continuous rotation. etc
2- Brushless.

3- Brushed motors.

4- Direct drive motors. 
5- Stepper motors.

6- Linear motors.

a) You must give the advantages and disadvantages of each, and must give examples of usage for each t.one of them that shows their best usage. 
b) You must show the control circuit that needs to drive the motors and explain when do we need to use the H-bridge and how to connect it on an Arduino board. 
c) Show how to measure the max power and current for a motor and what is the max power that our lab Arduino board that can handle, and what should we do if we need a stronger motor.

1- Servo motors that include positional rotation, continuous rotation. etc
The servo motor is a rotary motor that allows precise control of the angular position. It is an engine and sensor for comments. The drive is used to capture comments from the sensor to control the position of the engine strictly. There are two types of servo motors, standard and continuous. The first is a downward-oriented engine with a limited range of gyroscopes. The internal electronics are used to determine the current angle of the engine and Adriano and the servo on library can be used to change the engine to a specific angle within the circulation range. The continuous servo motor does not have an end in its range of motion, so instead of the input signal that determines the location where the device should rotate, it connects the input to the speed and the rotary direction.

Ardoino
Compound:
Servo motor
10 kohm resistor
Half size breadboard
Arduino Uno R3
100µF capacitor (we can removed)
Connect way

The servo motor has three heads, the 5V red color, the black / brown color of the GND ground, and the last color is usually orange / yellow and is connected to the 9 ‘digital pin’ port.

There is a servo motor servo motor socket that allows the jumper wires to be connected to the test panel and the arduino.

A servo motor may malfunction. This may occur when the controller is connected to “some” USB ports. This is because the engine directs a lot of energy, especially when starting the engine, which may reduce the Voltage Voltage Arduino, it is restarted
This problem is solved by adding a capacitor capacitor (470uF or higher) that is placed between 5V and GND.

The capacitor is used as a power supply tank. The engine is allowed to start by taking the current stored in the capacitor as well as the current it is taking from Jordan.

The longer end of the capacitor is the positive end, which must be connected to 5V. The negative end usually has a ‘-‘ sign on them.

Ardoino code “#include <Servo.h>

int servoPin = 9;

Servo servo;  

int angle = 0;   // servo position in degrees

void setup()
{
  servo.attach(servoPin);
}

void loop()
{
  // scan from 0 to 180 degrees
  for(angle = 0; angle < 180; angle++)  
  {                                  
    servo.write(angle);              
    delay(15);                  
  }
  // now scan back from 180 to 0 degrees
  for(angle = 180; angle > 0; angle–)    
  {                                
    servo.write(angle);          
    delay(15);      
  }
}

2- Brushless.

The main drawback of almost type of motors there are brushes between the component of motors, which cause friction, noise, and limit the lifetime by corroding.
So, to avoid this problem they do motor without the brush. Brushless type from motors of synchronous .there are three available type (single phases,2-phases ,3-phaser such as next figure :
There are no (slip )that mean there are different between FLUX speed (Ns) and rotor speed (N)
The next of type of motors:
The lase picture: The last picture: all type has a magnetic inside or in outside in Surface. This type of motors using as a sensor to know the place of Hall Effect sensor .Hall effect sensor mean the process of pushing the electric current in the Vetoed conductor is a magnetic field and moves the charge and drives it to one side of the conductor. The motor need 3 sensors to position the rotor.

Find an inverse relation between velocity and torque. At maximum speed, torque is as low as possible. The motors has the ability to work intermittently and continuously, which is as applicable
Understanding the installation of motors without brushes and how to work Let’s dismantle one of them. This type of motor is found in many remote controlled aircraft and helicopters.

Wind: Turns electricity into a magnetic field that moves in the rotor.

Contacts: Transfer energy from power source to fluctuations.

Bearings: Reduce the friction of the shaft.

Magnet: Provides a magnetic field that attracts files or interacts with them.

Axis: Moves mechanical energy from the engine to the user’s application.

Note: In these engines, the hard part containing the coil, the moving wheel contains permanent magnet (reversible brush motors)
The work of motors without brushes is very simple. The only moving part is the rotor, which includes the magnet. The most difficult part is how to organize the energy connection sequence in the winding. The polarity of each roll is controlled by controlling the flow current. Animation shows us a simple pattern that can be followed by controllers. Change the AC polarity, giving each roll the effect of “push / pull”. The important part here is to make this pattern match with rotor rotation speed. There are two methods that are widely used to do this: the first is used in most amateur controllers that measure EMI’s back-end capability on a non-powered lap. This method is very effective at high speeds, but when the engine rotates at a low speed, output voltage becomes more difficult to measure, so many errors occur. The second type is the modern amateur control devices and many industrial controllers that rely on Hull impact sensors to locate the magnet directly. This method is the basic way to control computer fans.

Advantages:
With high bearing power
High speed
High efficiency
Produce in large quantities and easy to find

Disadvantages:
It is difficult to control without the presence of special controllers
Requires low start loads
Usually requires a special gearbox to manage applications
Adriano:
Connection way:
1-Connecting BLDC to the ESC output. Here, it does not matter polar.
2-you must take care about three wires if changing any position of anyone it will change the engine to against direction
3-Connect the “+” batteries to the red to ESC wires
-Connect the “-” batteries to the black to ESC wires
Connect them in respectively.

From the external 3pin servo cable of the ESC,
1- connect the brown cable to the ‘GND’ pin on the Adriano.

2-Connect the yellow cable to any digital pin. In our case the PIN 12.c- The correct way to run the motors is to
1. Connect the battery to the ESC to power up the ESC.

2. Power the Adriano.

3- Brushed motors.

Brush DC motors are one of the most simple and easy to use engines. These engines are wide spread and you can see them anywhere. They are used in home appliances, toys and small cars. Because these engines are easy to install and control, they are the ideal solution and easy for professionals and enthusiasts alike.

To understand how this kind of engine works, let’s begin by dismantling a simple amateur engine. Now you can see for yourself how simple this engine is because it has a few key components.

Brush: Moves energy from the contact points to the rotor or motor through the adapter.

Contacts: Moves energy from power source to brushes.

Inverter: Moves power to a set of twists that the current must reach during rotor rotation.

Winders: Convert electricity to the magnetic field that drives the axis.

Axis: Moves mechanical energy from the engine to the user’s application.

Magnet: Provides a magnetic field that attracts files or interacts with them.

Metal Inlay (Lining): Minimize axle friction.

Can: represents a mechanical cover for the entire engine.

Fixed part : The stationary part that does not move, including the enclosure, magnet and metal lining.

Vertigo: The part that spins, including the axis, twists and turns.

When the power is connected to the winding, it pulls with the magnets placed on the sides of the motor. This causes the engine to spin until the brushes are connected to another set of switch points. Which leads to the delivery of power to a new set of twists, thus the process begins again. To reverse the direction of the engine, all you have to do is reverse the polarity of the current connected to the motor contact points. Sparks are produced inside the brush motors as the mattress moves from a contact point to the next contact point. Each coil wire is connected to the nearest two contact points on the switch.

A number of individual menus are used to prevent the engine from entering the firmware state. In larger engines, more fluctuations are used to remove what is known as “cogging”, which makes engine control smooth when RPM is low. The stick phenomenon can be easily observed by rotating the axis of the engine by hand and you will feel a shock in the movement of the engine when the magnets are as close as possible to the hard part. You can get rid of sticking to some design tricks, but the most common way is to get rid of your entire hard drive. These engines are called engines without iron engines or groundless.

Advantages:
Ease of use.

Torque is excellent when the number of cycles per minute is low.

The price is cheap and production is in bulk.

Disadvantages:
Brushes can be damaged over time.

Sparks resulting from brushes can cause electromagnetic noise
Its speed is usually limited to brush temperatures.

4- Direct drive motors. 

Drive Direct Drive is a type of hard disk drive that downloads the download directly. As a result, the transmission or gearbox is eliminated. Therefore, the amount of moving parts in the system is greatly reduced to increase efficiency and create a very quiet and dynamic process. Thus, the direct driving mechanism creates a very high life. Examples include a torque motor, a linear motor, and a BLDC motor.

In addition, the torque motors have less torque for inertia. This means that high torque is required to accelerate the engine. For direct torque, the inertia is low, making the motors very suitable for high speed, acceleration, quick operation and quick stop of applications.

In addition, Drive Direct can also be provided as a windowless drive. “Frameless” refers to a motor without a frame, bed, load or feedback system. As a result, system suppliers can integrate their engine into application and thus eliminate the need for additional overlap and thereby reduce the cost of ownership.

First, Drive Direct can be used for a variety of applications, such as applications that require high resolution positioning. In addition, these frameless motors are used in cases where small size, low weight, minimal energy and optimal speed control are desirable.

Advantages of the DIRECT MOTOR engine
The cost of the optimal solution
High Dynamic Performance
High torque to power ratio
High accuracy position
Ease of use
Innovations offer improved torque in many shapes and industries. In particular, we produce coaxial motors for industry and direct payment for industrial HVLS engines. Also for conveyor belts or conveyor belts, we offer direct motors and direct belt. Finally, Innov Innovations developed a high-efficiency set of direct torque motors, the MI-F series. Please see the MI-F Series manual.

5- Stepper motors:
Stepper motors are the best engines for use in site control applications. It is therefore used in office printers, 3D printers, CNC milling machines and anything else that requires precise control of the site. Stepper motors are a special type of motor without brushes. These engines are manufactured specifically because they contain high torque. Great torque gives the user the ability to “step” gradually to the next position. This results in a simple positioning system that does not require the use of an encryption program. This is why ease of use and use of control motors.

Stepper compound:
To understand how this type of engine works, let’s start dismantling this simple engine. Now you can see for yourself that these motors are designed for direct drive loads and have some key components.

Axis: Moves mechanical energy from the engine to the user’s application.

Bearings: Reduce the friction of the shaft.

Magnet: Provides a magnetic field that attracts files or interacts with them.

Electrodes: Increase the accuracy of step distance by focusing the magnetic field.

Winders: Convert electricity to the magnetic field that drives the axis.

Contacts: Moves energy from power source to brushes.

Theory of action

Stepper motors work in the same way as motors without brushes, and the only difference is that the step size is much lower. The most difficult part is how to organize the energy connection sequence in the winding. The polarity of each roll is controlled by controlling the flow current. Animation shows us a simple pattern that can be followed by controllers. Change the AC polarity, giving each roll the effect of “push / pull”. Another important difference is how to build a magnet for a Stepper motor. It’s hard to get a matrix of small magnets that work well and cost a lot of money. To overcome this, the method of drilling the magnet poles is used to turn it into something like age.

In motors without brushes, reverse force is used to measure speed. While the Stepper motor depends on the short throw of each file to ensure it reaches the desired point in time. At high speeds, this may stop, as the rotor cannot keep up with the sequence. There are several ways to solve this problem, but they rely heavily on a good understanding of the relationship between engine rolls and induction.

Advantages
Excellent accuracy in positioning
Great constipation torque
High carrying capacity
Most linear motors come in standard sizes
Disadvantages
The small distance of the step leads to the determination of the maximum speed
Some steps can be skipped with high loads
6- Linear motors:
These engines are the future! In high-speed machines and place machines, the installation of components on electronic panels is the most important thing, and with the speed comes friction, and with friction comes the need for maintenance, and with maintenance comes time to stop work, and with time to stop comes work with low productivity. By removing the components required to convert rotational motion to linear motion, the system becomes simpler and more efficient. It is easy to maintain and load linear motors because they contain a moving part which is surprisingly fast. You can see the capture and production machine, which is very fast. This device has a powerful effect because it warns users of pacemakers because it contains a whole row of very rare earth magnets.

Linear motor installation
To see how this engine works well let’s look carefully at the capture machine and the next way and see what it consists of.

Movement unit: Contains electric magnets and controls.

Magnet: Provides a magnetic field that attracts files or interacts with them.

Linear Bearings: Make the engine look like a magnet, the only moving part.

Theory of action

The linear motor is almost identical to a brushless motor. The only difference is that it is considered a brushless motor that has been converted into a linear motor (ie, converting an external metal disc into a marine plate). The motion unit is the only moving part. The most difficult part is how to organize the energy connection sequence in the winding. The polarity of each roll is controlled by controlling the flow current. Animation shows us a simple pattern that can be followed by controllers. Change the AC polarity, giving each roll the effect of “push / pull”. In a linear engine, there is usually an encryption device or an advanced GPS tracking and movement unit identification. For precise positioning, controllers are more complex than anything else in conventional systems. Microstepping is a way to magnetize “throttle” to make the movement smooth and delicate. To achieve this, linear motors require the use of a highly specialized controller, which is assigned to each engine separately. With the development of control technology, we can see the prices of these engines decline, so the three-dimensional printers can take several seconds to work instead of several hours!
Advantages:
Great bearing degree
High efficiency
High speed
Do not require rotational motion to be converted to linear motion
Disadvantages:
The price is too high
Requires the use of custom controllers
Installation and installation vary from one system to another depending on the purpose of the system